Pakistan, 1997

By Craig Baxter; Charles H. Kennedy | Go to book overview
secondary education and in the provision of basic health care. Also, the program should include a significant increase in the state's participation in the provision of family planning services.
The program should incorporate incentives for further increasing the participation of the private sector in providing secondary and tertiary education and advanced health care. There should, however, be a provision to increase the access of the poor to these facilities. This could be done by levying a tax on tuition and on health fees paid by the rich that use privately run and managed educational and health institutions.
The program should make a serious attempt to attract more direct foreign investment into the country. In particular, the government needs to tap the vast wealth of the overseas Pakistani community. This community is poised to play the same role that was performed and is still being performed by overseas Chinese, Koreans, and Indians in their respective countries.
Finally, the government should take steps to ease tensions with India and work towards increasing trade with India and other countries of South Asia. By easing tensions with India, the government of Mian Nawaz Sharif would lay the ground work for reducing defense expenditures in Pakistan.

The structural changes that would result from these policy actions would improve Pakistan's domestic resource situation, broaden the base of the economy and the base of taxation, improve the participation of all socio-economic groups in the political system, improve the quantity and quality of exports, ensure a reduction in population growth, and reduce the incidence of poverty. It would also reorient the role of the state. The state would no longer directly manage economic assets but would use its resources to provide social services, particularly to the poorer segments of the population. This program would also develop government institutions to regulate the private sector so that it works not only to produce profit for itself but also to ensure public welfare. This agenda of change is not impossible to implement but it will need political and social development, strengthening of the institutional base, and a major improvement in the quality of life of the country's human resources.


Notes
1.
See, in particular, Shahid Javed Burki, Pakistan Under Bhutto ( London: Macmillan, 1980); and Shahid Javed Burki, Pakistan: Continuing Search for Nationhood ( Boulder, Colo: Westview, 1991).
2.
See, for instance, a speech I gave at a symposium organized by The Muslim, an English language daily published from Islamabad. The speech was published in full under the title, "Pakistan: A Middle Income Country," Muslim ( August 8, 1992).

-33-

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Pakistan, 1997
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • 1 - Pakistan Elections 1997: One Step Forward 1
  • Conclusion 14
  • Notes 15
  • 2 - Is Pakistan's Past Relevant for Its Economic Future? 17
  • Notes 33
  • 3 - Pakistan and the Post-Cold War Environment 37
  • Notes 57
  • 4 - Judiciary in Pakistan: A Quest for Independence 61
  • Conclusions 73
  • Notes 75
  • 5 - Liberalization of the Economy Through Privatization 79
  • Conclusions 89
  • Notes 97
  • 6 - Revivalism, Islamization, Sectarianism, and Violence in Pakistan 101
  • Notes 118
  • 7 - Challenging the State: 1990s Religious Movements in the Northwest Frontier Province 123
  • Notes 138
  • 8 - Pakistan's Environment: Pressures, Status, Impact, and Responses 143
  • Notes 159
  • Chronology (september 1994-April 1997) 163
  • About the Contributors 181
  • Index 183
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