Pakistan, 1997

By Craig Baxter; Charles H. Kennedy | Go to book overview

but not dominated by regional religious movements, had registered an incremental devolution of central authority.

The elections of the PQP candidates in the Khyber and Orakzai Agencies and the PMLN's success in taking five National Assembly seats in Malakand implied that the religious movements in these areas would continue to face alternative, legitimate rivals for local influence. In 1997 neither the TNSM and TIUQ nor the defeated political leadership that opposed them in 1994-5 seemed to have had a "mutually empowering" recent history. But none among the religious movements, the defeated PPP, or the newly-serving political figures exhibited evidence that any issue had been permanently resolved.


Notes
1.
See Edmund Burke III, "Islam and Social Movements: Methodological Reflections," in Edmund Burke III and Ira M. Lapidus, eds., Islam, Politics, and Social Movements ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 17-35.
2.
Joel Migdal, Atul Kohli, and Vivienne Shue eds., State Power and Social Forces ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
3.
Such movements include: Tehrik-i Nifaz-i Shariat-i Muhammadi (TNSM) led by Sufi Muhammad, Tanzeem-i Ittehad-i-Ulama-i-Qabail (TIUQ) led by Maulana Abdul Hadi, Tehrik-i-Ittehad-i-Qabail (TIQ) led by Haji Marjan Mumtaz Khan Mohmand, Khyber Union, Khyber Agency led by Bazar Gul Afridi, Pakhtoonkhwa Qaumi Party (PQP) led by Latif Afridi, Tanzeem-i Tajeran-i-Khyber Agency led by Naseem Shinwari, Shabab-i-Milli, Khyber Agency led by Afrasiab Afridi.
4.
E. Burke III, "Islam and Social Movements," in Islam, Politics, and Social Movements, p. 25.
5.
Ayesha Jalal, Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 121.
6.
E. Burke, III, "Islam and Social Movements," in Islam, Politics, and Social Movements, p. 23.
7.
See Joel Migdal, et. al., State Power and Social Forces, pp. 1-4 and pp.5-34.
8.
That is, aside from Jinnah's party, the Muslim League. See Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr, The Vanguard of the Islamic Revolution, The Jama'at-i Islami of Pakistan ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).
9.
The Punjab Frontier Crimes Regulation (No. I of 1872); The Punjab Frontier Regulation Amendment Regulation (No. IV of 1873); The Punjab Frontier Regulation, 1876 (No.

-138-

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Pakistan, 1997
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • 1 - Pakistan Elections 1997: One Step Forward 1
  • Conclusion 14
  • Notes 15
  • 2 - Is Pakistan's Past Relevant for Its Economic Future? 17
  • Notes 33
  • 3 - Pakistan and the Post-Cold War Environment 37
  • Notes 57
  • 4 - Judiciary in Pakistan: A Quest for Independence 61
  • Conclusions 73
  • Notes 75
  • 5 - Liberalization of the Economy Through Privatization 79
  • Conclusions 89
  • Notes 97
  • 6 - Revivalism, Islamization, Sectarianism, and Violence in Pakistan 101
  • Notes 118
  • 7 - Challenging the State: 1990s Religious Movements in the Northwest Frontier Province 123
  • Notes 138
  • 8 - Pakistan's Environment: Pressures, Status, Impact, and Responses 143
  • Notes 159
  • Chronology (september 1994-April 1997) 163
  • About the Contributors 181
  • Index 183
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