Pakistan, 1997

By Craig Baxter; Charles H. Kennedy | Go to book overview

8
Pakistan's Environment: Pressures,
Status, Impact, and Responses

Syed Ayub Qutub

This chapter describes the pressures upon, and the state of, Pakistan's environment in a global context. It attempts to link recent changes in status with resource use practices, and to assess their impact on human well-being. Finally, it describes the responses of governments and societies to environmental challenges, as perceived at various periods.


Pressures upon the Environment

Humanity's impact on the earth and its resources has increased at an unprecedented rate with every decade in the last two centuries, and with every year in the most recent decades. Human activities are now affecting some of the most basic climatic and biological cycles of the planet. Pakistan, with a per capita gross national product (GNP) just one-ninth of the world average, is neither a major global polluter nor a large consumer of resources.

The average Pakistani contributes only one-seventeenth of the world average of carbon dioxide emissions, the greenhouse gas responsible for half the global warming expected in the next few decades. 1 Pakistan produces no chlorofluorocarbons or other ozone depleting substances, and consumes only twenty-two grams per person a year; that is one-tenth the world average, of these controlled substances, and thus makes a negligible addition to stratospheric ozone depletion. 2

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Pakistan, 1997
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • 1 - Pakistan Elections 1997: One Step Forward 1
  • Conclusion 14
  • Notes 15
  • 2 - Is Pakistan's Past Relevant for Its Economic Future? 17
  • Notes 33
  • 3 - Pakistan and the Post-Cold War Environment 37
  • Notes 57
  • 4 - Judiciary in Pakistan: A Quest for Independence 61
  • Conclusions 73
  • Notes 75
  • 5 - Liberalization of the Economy Through Privatization 79
  • Conclusions 89
  • Notes 97
  • 6 - Revivalism, Islamization, Sectarianism, and Violence in Pakistan 101
  • Notes 118
  • 7 - Challenging the State: 1990s Religious Movements in the Northwest Frontier Province 123
  • Notes 138
  • 8 - Pakistan's Environment: Pressures, Status, Impact, and Responses 143
  • Notes 159
  • Chronology (september 1994-April 1997) 163
  • About the Contributors 181
  • Index 183
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