Nitobe Inazô: Japan's Bridge across the Pacific

By John F. Howes | Go to book overview

strength by means of a national ethical code based on Bushido, and Japan would surely better tolerate and respect the first nation outside its own empire to give such stature to Bushido.

In such circumstances Nitobe's writings played only a coincidental role. Yet Philippine Bushido would probably have not developed as it did if Nitobe's Bushido had not been so popular and respected. It was the only source of Bushido which could either have inspired the new Philippine ethical code or could have laid the foundation for closer Philippine-Japanese diplomatic ties.

Thus, the real importance of Japanese Bushido to the Philippines, derived in large measure from the ideas of Nitobe, lies in Quezon's effort to utilize what he perceived to be its contribution to the authoritarian structure of Japanese governance and its potential similar contribution to the Philippines. We cannot know the true root of Quezon's interest in Bushido, yet Bushido seems to have provided one more among Quezon's many other efforts to reinforce his power after November 1935. He made no secret of his admiration for Mussolini, Hitler, Franco, and the Japanese. Since Quezon ruled a country still officially under the American flag and dependent on American support, he could not blatantly take up fascism or Nazism. Bushido, with its less obvious political character, with its Asian origins and with its uniquely Japanese history and quasi-philosophy was far more attractive. Given the realities of the international scene in the late 1930s and the concurrent desirability for both a stronger Philippine national identity and strengthened Philippine leadership, a new Filipino ethical and spiritual code derived from Bushido was not then perhaps as strange or as obscure as it may seem now.


Notes
1
See my "The Problem of Philippine Independence and Japan: The First Three Decades of American Colonial Rule", Southeast Asia: An International Quarterly 1, no. 3, ( Summer 1971):164-90; Manuel L. Quezon in Tokyo, 1937, Bulletin of the American Historical Collections 10, no. 2(39), ( April-June 1982): 60-71; "Manuel L. Quezon's Visit to Japan, June 29-July 10, 1939", in Four Aspects of Philippine-Japanese Relations, 1930-1940 ( New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Program, 1967), pp. 195-237; "Consistency Is the Hobgoblin: Manuel L. Quezon and Japan, 18991934", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 14, no. 1, ( March 1983): 79-93
2
These visits are described in detail in my "Manuel L. Quezon in Tokyo, 1937", and Manuel L. Quezon's Visit to Japan, June 29-July 10, 1938.
3
J. R. Hayden, The Philippines: A Study in National Development ( New York: Macmillan, 1950), p. 349
4
Otani Jun'ichi, ed., Philippine Yearbook ( Kobe: Tanaka, 1937), p. 240
5
"Bushido" An address before the Philippine Association for Oriental Affairs, June 24, 1936 by President Jorge Bocobo. Papers of Jorge Bocobo, Library of the University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines.

-130-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Nitobe Inazô: Japan's Bridge across the Pacific
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • About the Contributors xv
  • Editorial Conventions xvii
  • One - Introduction 1
  • 1 - Who Was Nitobe? 3
  • Two - Maturation 25
  • 2 - Roots 27
  • 3 - Graduate Student and Quaker 71
  • Three - Cultural Identity 77
  • 4 - Japann Watchers: 1903-1931 79
  • 5 - Bushido: Its Admirers and Critics 117
  • 6 - Philippine Bushido 130
  • 7 - Toward Remaking Manliness 155
  • Four - Japan in the World 157
  • 8 - Colonial Theories and Practices in Prewar Japan 159
  • Notes 174
  • 9 - The Geneva Spirit 209
  • Five - Evaluation 215
  • 10 - Journalism: the Last Bridge 217
  • 12 - The End: 1929-1933 272
  • 13 - Darkened Lanterns in a Distant Garden 301
  • 14 - Conclusion 315
  • About the Book and Editor 317
  • Index 319
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 331

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.