Aḥad Ha-amist a supporter of the cultural Zionism articulated by Aḥad Ha-am, the pen name of Asher Ginsburg ( 1856-1927).
Aleinu prayer recited near the end of Jewish worship services.
Aleph the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
Baal Shem Tov "Master of the Good Name." The title of Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov -- the alleged founder of Hasidism.
Bar Mitzvah the age of responsibility, according to Jewish law, when a boy is thirteen.
Beit Midrash communal house of study.
Cholent a Sabbath stew prepared before the Sabbath and kept warm overnight, usually eaten at midday.
Golem creature made in an artificial way by an act of magic, hence something untamed and dumb.
Goy (female: goyah; plural: goyim) gentile.
Ḥallah a loaf of white bread eaten on the Sabbath.
Hamantaschen a traditional sweet roll eaten on the festival of Purim to commemorate the hanging of Haman.
Ḥametz foods containing leavened material and therefore forbidden to eat or touch during Passover.
Hanukah a minor Jewish holiday celebrating the rededication of the Temple in the second century B.C.E. Traditionally, children were given gifts of small coins as part of the festivities.
Ha-Pardes a Hebrew journal advocating Ahad Ha-amist ideals.
Ḥaroset a mixture of grated or chopped fruits (apples, walnuts, and wine) eaten during the Passover Seder (meal) to symbolizehe clay mixture that the Children of Israel had to prepare to form building bricks during their enslavement in Egypt.
Ha-Shiloaḥ an intellectual Aḥad Ha-amist Hebrew periodical.
Haskalab the Jewish enlightenment movement, which strove to modernize East European Jewish culture in the nineteenth century.