Race and Ethnicity: Essays in Comparative Sociology

By Pierre L. Van den Berghe | Go to book overview

rather than compulsive. Equality of opportunities is largely accepted, casual relations are widely tolerated, but intimate relationships with colored people are frowned upon. Mulattoes are generally less discriminated against than Negroes, but a small minority "prefers" Negroes to mulattoes. This small minority exhibits a much more virulent form of prejudice against both Negroes and mulattoes than does the general sample. Sex is an important determinant of prejudice. So is socioeconomic status, although our data are too uncertain and incomplete to determine the exact relationship. Ethnic origin of the parents likewise plays an important role.

The weaknesses of our study are many and obvious. As we have pointed out, the sample is not random nor proportional; the postulates underlying the analysis are debatable; and so on. Our conclusions must be accepted with all caution, and we have raised more problems than we have solved. Although our findings largely confirm previous studies, certain revisions of the literature seem in order. Should our study only stimulate criticism, further research, and a few working hypotheses, we should be highly satisfied.


NOTES
1.
For our purposes a "race" is a human grouping socially and subjectively defined in a given society. This grouping considers itself different from other groupings similarly defined by virtue of innate and visible physical characteristics, or, in the extreme case, defined, rightly or wrongly, as biologically separate subgroups.

The same terms such as "Negro" and "white" may, in different societies, cover objectively dissimilar groupings as exemplified by Brazil and the United States. In this research, we shall use the Brazilian definition. "Racial prejudice" is the totality of reciprocal relations of stereotypy, discrimination, and segregation existing between human groupings that consider themselves and each other as "races."

2.
On Brazilian racial problems, see Gilberto Freyre, Casa Grandee Senzala

-105-

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Race and Ethnicity: Essays in Comparative Sociology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction 3
  • Notes 17
  • Part I - General and Theoretical 19
  • 1 - Paternalistic Versus Competitive Race Relations: an Ideal-Type Approach 21
  • Notes 39
  • 2 - Distance Mechanisms of Stratification 42
  • 3 - Hypergamy, Hypergenation, and Miscegenation 54
  • Summary 63
  • Notes 63
  • 4 - Racialism and Assimilation in Africa and the Americas 68
  • Notes 77
  • 5 - Toward a Sociology of Africa 79
  • Part II - The Americas 95
  • 6 - Stereotypes, Norms, and Interracial Behavior in São Paulo, Brazil 97
  • Notes 105
  • 7 - Ethnic Relations in Southeastern Mexico 107
  • 8 - Ethnic Membership and Cultural Change in Guatemala 137
  • Conclusion 149
  • Notes 150
  • Part III - South Africa 153
  • 9 - Research in South Africa: The Story of My Experiences with Tyranny 155
  • Notes 171
  • 10 - Apartheid, Fascism, and the Golden Age 173
  • 11 - Race Attitudes in Durban, South Africa 188
  • Summary 206
  • Notes 207
  • 12 - Racial Segregation in South Africa: Degrees and Kinds 210
  • 13 - Miscegenation in South Africa 224
  • Summary 239
  • Notes 241
  • 14 - Language and Nationalism in South Africa 244
  • Part IV - The Indian Diaspora 259
  • 15 - Indians in Natal and Fiji: a "Controlled Experiment" in Culture Contact 261
  • Notes 274
  • 16 - Asians in East and South Africa 276
  • Index 304
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