THE SIGNING OF a basic relations treaty between Japan and the Republic of Korea on June 22, 1965, hardly represented the start of a new era of amiable relations. 1 Mass demonstrations raged in both countries in opposition to the settlement. Moreover, residual animosity was evident in the absence of cooperation in the years immediately following normalization. Despite the establishment of diplomatic ties, the two governments sought neither to engage in formal summitry nor to create regularized channels of political dialogue. In spite of the hostile cold-war neighborhood in which the two states resided, they eschewed any discussion of common security interests. Economic relations were replete with accusations on Seoul's part of Japanese attempts at economic recolonization and complaints on Tokyo's part of Korean attempts at extorting economic assistance through perennial harping on colonial compensation. Disputes over territorial fishing rights led to South Korean harassment and capture of Japanese vessels in 1966, and in the ensuing years the two governments clashed over Japanese exports to North Korea, entry permits for North Korean visitors to Japan, and reentry visas for pro-Pyongyang ( Chosen Soren) residents in Japan. These problems led to South Korean efforts at obstructing travel between the two countries, formal protests by both foreign ministries, and threats of recalling ambassadors. 2
However, significantly different dynamics prevailed from 1969 to 1971. 3 Japan and the ROK entered into a brief but definitive phase of cooperative behavior. The two governments began discussions on common security issues. Binational committees to enhance political dialogue were established. Unprecedented amounts of Japanese aid and investment flowed into the South Korean economy.