WRAPPED in their many-coloured ruanas, barefoot, with big hats pulled down over their ears, incessantly spitting on the ground and ready to fuddle themselves with guarpo until they could not stand, the common people took no matter of interest in any political movement. One loved the King as one believed in God; he was too far away -- nobody wanted to discuss him.
After the events of July, 1808, it was considered that Captain-General Don Juan de Casas had not shown sufficient presence of mind or firmness at the time of the French officers' arrival. It would have taken very little to make him recognize the usurper; he was courteously replaced by Don Vicente d'Emperán, a peaceable man, well disposed towards every one, virtuous and generally esteemed. The Venezuelans soon got used to his leniency. They developed such a taste for it that, as soon as a moderately severe order was made with regard to illegal publications, the Liberals grew angry.
In vain did Emperán invite the most prominent members of this party to his house and there endeavour to argue them into a renunciation of their foolish ideas; they replied that a war with Spain was the only scheme worth thinking of. That was too much. Emperfin had two or three of the leaders arrested and advised the others, among whom was Bolivar, to go and