Stress, Coping, and Cardiovascular Disease

By Philip M. McCabe; Neil Schneiderman et al. | Go to book overview

ing the expression of the autonomic components of affective behaviors in response to the CS. The sites in the hypothalamus that are a part of this circuitry may also be involved in the regulation of unlearned affective responses, such as the defense reaction. Although the integrity of the PAG appears to be essential to the expression of the somatic motor components of learned affective behavior to CS, its exact role in the expression of the autonomic components of the response to these stimuli remains to be determined. Notwithstanding, it appears that the mediation of the somatic components of CRs requires the activation of PAG neurons that mediate unlearned affective behaviors.


Function of Conditioned Emotional Responses

Conditioned emotional responses, in our view, have several functions. Most stressors lead to the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Conditioning in a constrained individual is seen as a way to buffer the physiological impact of this sympathetic response by the development of an anticipatory parasympathetic response (the CR) ( Schneiderman, 1974). The CR may also attenuate the physiological impact of stressful stimuli by serving as a negative feedback mechanism ( Dworkin et al., 1994). This may be mediated by effects on sensory processing mechanisms or by brain mechanisms involved in determining the emotional significance of stimuli. Notwithstanding, the CR leads to a decrease in the magnitude of the unconditioned response by mitigating the impact of the US (i.e., the stressor). Finally, conditioned emotional responses may lead to changes in arousal and attention that facilitate the processing of some types of sensory information.


REFERENCES

Abrahams V. C., Hilton S. M., & Zbrozyna A. W. ( 1960). Active muscle vasodilatation produced by stimulation of the brain stem: Its significance in the defence reaction. Journal of Physiology ( London), 154, 491-513.

Abrahams V. C., Hilton S. M., & Zbrozyna A. W. ( 1964). The role of active muscle vasodilatation in the alerting stage of the defence reaction. Journal of Physiology ( London), 171, 89-202.

Abshire V. M., Hankins K. D., Roehr K. E., & DiMicco J. A. ( 1988). Injections of 1-Allyglycine into the posterior hypothalamus in rats causes decreases in local GABA which correlate with increases in heart rate. Neuropharmacology, 27, 1171-1177.

Aggleton J. P., & Mishkin M. ( 1986). The amygdala: Sensory gateway to the emotions. In R. Plutchik , & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research and experience, Vol. 3. Biological foundations of emotions (pp. 281-299). New York: Academic Press.

Allen R. ( 1981). Controlling stress and tension. Journal of School Health, 17, 360-364. Anderson R. A., Knight E I., & Merzenich M. M. ( 1980). The thalamocortical and corticothalamic connections of AII, All, and the anterior auditory field (AAF) in the cat:

-38-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Stress, Coping, and Cardiovascular Disease
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 279

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.