In addition, the early 1960s marked the beginning of a time of exciting changes in the historiography of the United States. Bracketing this era are two articles published ten years apart in the American Historical Review. In 1963, during my first year in graduate school, Carl Bridenbaugh, the colonial historian, warned that many students and younger professors were "products of lower middle class or foreign origins, and their emotions not infrequently get in the way of historical reconstructions. They find themselves in a very real sense outsiders on our past and feel themselves shut out"; the result was that they could not "communicate to and reconstruct the past." Budding scholars disregarded these concerns and began studying ethnic and racial culture, racial and class conflict, gender issues in American life, popular culture, and other topics. Ten years later, in 1973, the American Historical Review published an eloquent rebuttal to Bridenbaugh's ethnocentrism. Written by Herbert G. Gutman, an outsider whose parents were Jewish immigrants from Poland, the article examined ethnic culture and its interplay with, and resistance to, the industrial society that emerged in America during the nineteenth and early twentieth century. See Bridenbaugh, "The Great Mutation", American Historical Review 68 ( Jan 1963), 315-31; Gutman, "Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing America, 1815-1919" American Historical Review 78 ( June 1973), 531-88; Ira Berlin, "Introduction: Herbert G. Gutman and the American Working Class", in Berlin, ed., Power & Culture: Essays on the American Working Class: Herbert G. Gutman ( New York: Pantheon, 1987), 3-69; Peter Novick, That Noble Dream: The "Objectivity Question" and the American Historical Profession ( Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988), 469-521.