To Choose a Future: Resource and Environmental Consequences of Alternative Growth Paths

By Ronald G. Ridker; William D. Watson | Go to book overview

Explanatory Noted and Units of Measure
Symbols used in the tables:
Three dots (. . .) indicate that data are not available or are not separately reported.
A dash (-----) indicates that the amount is nil or negligible.
A blank space in a table indicates that the item is not applicable.
Quads = 1015Btu
Weights:
One metric ton = 1.102 short tons; 1 long ton = 1.20 short tons.
Conversion factors:
Crude oil--1 barrel = 0.36 metric tons = 0.150 short tons
Uranium--1 short ton (U3O8) = 0.769 metric tons of uranium
One million barrels of oil per day equals:
2.1 quads (2.1 × 1015Btu) per year
2.2 exajoules (1018joules) per year
530 × 1012 kilo calories per year
50 million metric tons oil per year
76 million metric tons coal per year
57 billion cubic meters natural gas per year = 5.9 billion cubic feet per day
620 terawatt hours (109kWh) per year
Approximately heat content of various fuels and electricity:
Crude oil: 1 barrel = 5.8 million Btu
Natural gas: 1 cubic foot = 1,030 Btu
Coal--1 short ton = 24 million Btu
U3O8--1 short ton = 120 million KWh(th) = 409.4 billion Btu (gross)
Electricity: 1 kWh=3,412 Btu
energy accounting conventions:
Coal, natural gas, petroleum--Reported at Btu content of fuel
Hydroelectric and geothermal power--Reported at 10,749 Btu/kWh (e) initially, decreasing to 7,745 Btu/kWh (e)
Fossil-fuel electric power generation--Reported at 10,241 Btu/kWh(e) initially, decreasing to 7,282 Btu/kWh (e)
Nuclear electric power generation--Reported at 10,929 Btu/kWh(e) initially, decreasing to 8,415 Btu/kWh(e)
Gasified coal--Includes conversion loss equal to 20 percent of synthetic natural gas produced
Shale oil--Includes conversion loss equal to 20 percent of synthetic crude oil produced

-xv-

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To Choose a Future: Resource and Environmental Consequences of Alternative Growth Paths
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Explanatory Noted and Units of Measure xv
  • I - Approaching the Task 1
  • References 13
  • 2 - Assumptions and Scenarios 15
  • References 56
  • 3 - The National Economy 58
  • References 94
  • 4 - Nonfuel Minerals 96
  • Conclusions 148
  • References 154
  • 5 - Energy 157
  • References 216
  • 6 - Agriculture 221
  • References 248
  • 7 - Pollution Costs and Control Benefits 250
  • Conclusions 296
  • 8 - Other Environmental Concerns 325
  • References 368
  • 9 - Summary and Prospects 372
  • References 410
  • Appendix 411
  • References 452
  • Epilogue 456
  • References 459
  • Index 460
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