Beyond the City Limits: Rural History in British Columbia

By R. W. Sandwell | Go to book overview

1 'Relating to the Country': The Lekwammen and the Extension of European Settlement, 1843-1911

John Lutz1

Are Aboriginal people rural? Reading the existing literature on rural Canada, the answer would appear to be no. Rural historians have paid little attention to Aboriginal people. Yet, the primary definition of rural is: 'of, or relating to the country,' a delightfully ambiguous phrase that may mean 'of, or relating to' the 'countryside' or the 'nation.'

If by country we mean countryside, and countryside means non-urban, then clearly the answer is yes, Aboriginal people are rural. Until the 1960s, the vast majority of Aboriginal people lived outside urban centres. Many of those who lived in or on the edge of urban centres, like the Lekwammen, had lived in the same spot when it was still countryside. If we limit countryside further, to mean agricultural land, then in numerous instances and times, the answer is still yes. 2

If by country we mean nation, Aboriginal people are also obviously key to 'country history.' This double entendre, 'of, or relating to the country,' is particularly apt in Canada because of the importance of agriculture as the impulse for the 'settlement' of the nation. Aboriginal people ought to figure large in this history because immigrants settled on land already owned and occupied. Settlement in Canada was accompanied by an 'unsettling' process. That is to say, those who settled the country, in both its meanings, did so at the expense of Aboriginal people who were 'unsettled,' or dispossessed, of lands that they had either used for hunting and harvesting wild or semi- domesticated crops or lands they used themselves for agriculture.

By looking at the extension of the Canadian countryside to its most westerly shores, this chapter opens a window into the process by which Aboriginal people were unsettled from their lands to make room for European rural, and, later, urban settlement. It focuses on the establishment of a European agricultural settlement on southern Vancouver Island in the territory of the Lekwammen who, until recently, were known to Euro-Canadians as 'Songhees.' Lekwammen identifies them by the dialect formerly spoken by them, while Songhees remains the legal name of the 'band' and their reserve on the Department of Indian Affairs files. Since the historical sources

-17-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Beyond the City Limits: Rural History in British Columbia
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 296

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.