lish, a coherent policy toward China because of the irreconcilable differences between the interests of various United States domestic constituencies. This shortcoming is compounded by the failure of the United States to generate and implement nonbinary policy levers. Third, the model for United States policy toward China should draw more heavily from its historical successes with countries rising to global prominence than from its historical failures. A common element of these historical successes has been the presence of functioning civil societies in nations that rise to responsible globalism. Therefore, China would benefit from a civil society of voluntary associations similar to that in other globally responsible nations. The United States should promote civil society within China by focusing its allocation of government benefits to U.S. business entities willing to contribute to the growth of middle market civil institutions within China.
The costs and risks of a policy initiative to promote civil society in China are small. The benefits are great and historically well founded. The United States should act to add this initiative to its China policy.