Equality among Unequals in International Environmental Law: Differential Treatment for Developing Countries

By Anita Margrethe Halvorssen | Go to book overview

4
Facilitating the Participation of
Developing Countries -- Sources of
Conflict Regarding their Treatment in
the International Regulatory Process

The Benefits for Developed Countries of Using Incentives (Differen
tial Treatment) for Developing Countries

The recognition of the interdependence of the environment and the fact that it is oblivious to political borders, as indicated above, has lead to the realization of the need for universal participation in tackling global environmental problems. Involvement of developing countries is essential to ensure the success of international agreements for the protection of globally sensitive natural resources. Facilitating the participation of developing countries through the use of incentives, in effect giving them differential treatment, is one of the most contentious issues in this context. 1

One could ask: Why should industrialized countries help developing countries by using incentives such as the transfer of environmentally sound technology or financial assistance? Altruism on a grand scale was never a strong point in international relations, relations that are mostly based on reciprocity. Quite to the contrary, the industrialized countries have a lot to gain by supporting developing countries, namely benefits such as, reduced aggregate pollution, the creation of markets for exports of environmentally sound technology, 2 and "[t]he proper management of natural resources that are important not only to the collective human security, but also to the success of private enterprises." 3 What is perhaps difficult to conceive, are the long-term benefits which cannot be measured, but are very important nonetheless, such as preserving biodiversity. 4

An important issue concerns what is at stake for the developed countries if the developing countries do not improve their development models to take environmental considerations into account. Failure to address the

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Equality among Unequals in International Environmental Law: Differential Treatment for Developing Countries
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Cases vii
  • Major Treaties and Other International Instruments ix
  • Preface xiii
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Notes 7
  • 2 - Background 11
  • Notes 31
  • 3 - Sustainable Development 41
  • Notes 60
  • 4 - Facilitating the Participation of Developing Countries -- Sources of Conflict Regarding Their Treatment in the International Regulatory Process 67
  • Notes 80
  • 5 - Promoting the Participation of Developing States -- Incentives and Disincentives in Some International Environmental Agreements 85
  • Notes 108
  • 6 - International Institutional Structures 117
  • Notes 139
  • 7 - Special Funding Mechanisms 149
  • Notes 160
  • 8 - The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (ngos) and Other Major Groups in Promoting Universal Participation 167
  • Notes 177
  • 9 - Conclusion 181
  • Abbreviations and Acronyms 185
  • Selected Bibliography 187
  • Index 195
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