Equality among Unequals in International Environmental Law: Differential Treatment for Developing Countries

By Anita Margrethe Halvorssen | Go to book overview

Capacity 21 was created to help developing countries build the capacity to formulate and implement national programs for sustainable development; developing their own Agenda 21 plans. 214 These plans are then harmonized with the National Environmental Action Plans which the World Bank sponsors. 215 Capacity 21 also promotes the integration of environmental considerations into development plans. Through the use of Environmental Management Guidelines, Capacity 21 helps countries ensure that projects do not have negative effects on the environment. 216

Capacity 21 is a likely channel for increasing knowledge and capabilities in many areas, including technical skills needed to integrate environmentally sound technology, make sustainable development plans at the local level, and develop the environmental laws and administration needed to implement multilateral environmental treaties. Together with UNEP, UNDP's Capacity 21 can provide governments with an integrated program of environment and development law services as Agenda 21 urges, thereby promoting the participation of developing countries in international environmental agreements. 217

An independent review of Capacity 21 was carried out in 1996. The report, on the whole, praises Capacity 21, and states that it has made excellent progress toward fulfilling its objectives. 218


Notes
1.
See Helsinki Declaration on the Environment, Mar. 11, 1989, 28 I.L.M. 1308 (1989).
2.
See Agenda 21, supra Chapter 1 note 8, ch. 38.
3.
See Programme for Further Implementation of Agenda 21, supra Chapter 2 note 190, ¶¶ 122-30.
4.
See NGOs, infra Chapter 8.
5.
UNEP Information and Public Affairs Branch, UNEP IN BRIEF, Nairobi, Kenya, 1992.
6.
See Agenda 21, supra Chapter 1 note 8, at 38.23.
7.
See UNITED NATIONS, THE BASIC FACTS ABOUT THE UNITED NATIONS 85 ( 1987).
8.
See Mark A. Gray, The United Nations Environment Programme: An Assessment, 20 ENVTL. L. 292 ( 1990).
9.
See Report on the Stockholm Conference, supra Chapter 1 note 11.
10.
United Nations, Press Release, U.N. Doc. HE/948, Feb. 12, 1997 (hereinafter UNPR HE/948).
11.
See Caldwell, supra Chapter 1 note 12, at 69; G.A. Res. 3004(XXVII), U.N. GAOR (Dec. 15, 1972) ("Location of the Environment Secretariat").
12.
D. W. BOWETT, THE LAW OF INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 57,58 ( 1982).

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Equality among Unequals in International Environmental Law: Differential Treatment for Developing Countries
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Cases vii
  • Major Treaties and Other International Instruments ix
  • Preface xiii
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Notes 7
  • 2 - Background 11
  • Notes 31
  • 3 - Sustainable Development 41
  • Notes 60
  • 4 - Facilitating the Participation of Developing Countries -- Sources of Conflict Regarding Their Treatment in the International Regulatory Process 67
  • Notes 80
  • 5 - Promoting the Participation of Developing States -- Incentives and Disincentives in Some International Environmental Agreements 85
  • Notes 108
  • 6 - International Institutional Structures 117
  • Notes 139
  • 7 - Special Funding Mechanisms 149
  • Notes 160
  • 8 - The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (ngos) and Other Major Groups in Promoting Universal Participation 167
  • Notes 177
  • 9 - Conclusion 181
  • Abbreviations and Acronyms 185
  • Selected Bibliography 187
  • Index 195
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