THE SOURCE-MATERIAL for this study lies in the files of early California newspapers and magazines, particularly the Golden Era, the Californian, the News Letter, and the Overland Monthly; in collections of rare books, letters, and manuscripts owned by libraries and private individuals; and in a considerable body of published letters, autobiographies, and biographies dealing with Western writers. Among biographies I have received most help from Bret Harte: Argonaut and Exile by George R. Stewart, Ambrose Bierce: a Biography by Carey McWilliams , and The Life of Henry George by Henry George Jr . I have also drawn on Albert Bigelow Paine Mark Twain: a Biography and Bernard De Voto Mark Twain's America for many ideas in directing my research on Mark Twain. In dealing with the minor characters I have found Ella Sterling Cummins's Story of the Files a constant source of both fact and suggestion. Another invaluable aid was the index of California newspapers and magazines in the State Library at Sacramento.
The principal collections examined during my research were those of the California Section of the State Library, Sacramento; the Bancroft Library, Berkeley; the University of California Library, Berkeley; the Huntington Library, San Marino; the San Francisco Public Library; the Los Angeles Public Library; the Harte and Miller collections made by the late Willard A. Morse of Santa Monica; the Coolbrith and Stoddard papers in the hands of Mr. Finlay Cooke of San