THE NEAR EAST
"THE Near Eastern question may be defined as the problem of filling up the vacuum created by the gradual disappearance of the Turkish Empire from Europe."1 Beginning with the treaty of Carlowitz in 1699, by which Hungary was restored to the Hapsburgs, the process was not finally completed by the treaty signed in London on 30 May, 1913, which left to the Sultan eastern Thrace and Constantinople itself. But down to the Crimean War and the treaty of Paris ( 1853-6), the Turkish possessions still extended to the Danube River and the Carpathians, and the animosities bred by their partition was one of the main causes of the Great War of 1914. The conviction that the Turk must depart from Europe gradually spread among all the European peoples, even the English, who fifty years ago believed that the safety of India depended upon the maintenance of the Ottoman Empire. But the problem of the Turk was not restricted to Europe. His possession of Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Arabia, and, until within a generation, of northern Africa as well, determined the policy of more than one Power with respect to the situation in the Balkans.
The problem is due to the Turks themselves. A nomadic tribe out of the heart of Asia, they conquered their vast dominions by the sword, and by the sword they held them. Of the arts of peace they knew nothing; in the six centuries of their domination they contributed little to the economic,____________________