Although bibliographies are soon out of date, certain standard bibliographical works should be mentioned. One useful aid is H. P. Beers, Bibliographies in American History: Guide to Materials for Research ( New York, 1942). Annual volumes sponsored by the American Historical Association, prepared by Grace G. Griffin et al., Writings of American History, cover the years 1906-40 and 1948. Also important are Samuel F. Bemis and G. G. Griffin , Guide to the Diplomatic History of the United States, 1775-1921 ( Washington, 1935), and the Harvard Guide to American History ( Cambridge, Mass., 1954), compiled by Oscar Handlin, Arthur M. Schlesinger, Samuel Eliot Morison, Frederick Merk, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., and Paul M. Buck . A short cut to the sources and secondary works on biography at the time of publication will be found in Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone (eds.), Dictionary of American Biography ( 22 vols., New York, 1928-58). More rewarding are the bibliographies in the specialized volumes covering the period, which will be later mentioned.
For the historian certain periodicals stand out as particuarly valuable for the nineties. The Arena ( 1889- 1909), edited by Benjamin C. Flower, John Clark Ridpath , and others, has been described as the "original muckraking magazine," and contained much on the problems of the decade, as did The Forum ( 1886- 1930). Nor should the more conservative North American Review ( 1815- 1940) be neglected. The Political Science Quarterly ( 1886-----), beginning in 1889, furnished a semiannual record of political events, and the Review of Reviews ( 1890- 1937) carried comments and articles on current events. The Literary Digest ( 1890- 1937) presented symposiums of press opinions, as did Public Opinion ( 1886- 1903). The outstanding weekly was The Nation ( 1865-----), edited by the independent Edwin L. Godkin, whose opinions on matters of politics and economics were expressed with forth-