EARLY IDEALS OF SINGING
THE limits of this work have necessarily been overstepped in some places, yet the temptation to enter upon a comparison of old and new ideals of singing need not be resisted. The student of vocal history may easily trace the development of the modern style by observing at what period in the march of operatic composition the orchestra began to rival the voice as an instrument of expression and by noting when the conventionalism of the familiar classic subjects began to give way to the passionate and even violent tales of the romanticists. He may trace, if he will, the influence of Victor Hugo and Byron on the lyric drama, and he may with profit study the histories of such singers as Pasta, Malibran, Rubini, and others of the world famous group whose art glorified the Theatre des Italiens in the early years of the nineteenth century.
If he examines the pages of the old composers, he will seek in vain for such a num