Meryl Lichtenstein Thomas K. Srull University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
This chapter is concerned with the relationship between memory and evaluative judgment, a topic that has long been of concern to researchers in both psychology and consumer behavior. Despite this interest, however, the literature in both areas is confusing and, in many cases, it at least gives the appearance of being contradictory. We attempt to address the major theoretical and methodological issues involved in investigating the relationship between memory and judgment in the present paper. A model related to the psychological processes involved in memory and judgment is outlined, and several empirical tests of the model are then reported.
From a historical perspective, there has been more work related to the relationship between memory and judgment in the area of attitudes and attitude change than in any other. It has long been assumed, for example, that the ultimate effect of a persuasive message, such as an advertisement, on both attitudes and behavior is a function of the information conveyed and the degree to which it is learned and remembered by the recipient. This assumption has been made by a number of leading theorists in the field (see e.g., Hovland, Janis, & Kelley, 1953; McGuire, 1968; Miller & Campbell, 1959; Watts & Mcguire, 1964).
Researchers interested in various aspects of social judgment have also been concerned with the relationship between memory and judgment. The bulk of this work has been related to impression formation and various types of attri-