Peter Cushing Melody Douglas-Tate Leo Burnett, U.S.A.
In simple terms, most models of the communication process consider source, message, media or environment (context), and receiver characteristics as variables that affect receiver response. Or as Laswell ( 1948) put it, the communication process can be described as "Who . . . says what . . . in what channel . . . to whom . . . with what effect." While all of these things are deemed important in understanding the communication process, the bulk of research in advertising has traditionally been oriented towards what it is about advertising (including the source, message, and the media) that affects consumers' choice processes, rather than characteristics of the consumer (receiver).
For example, early research on persuasion done by learning theorists focused on characteristics of the message, source, and the context that impede or enhance message acceptance by the receiver. Studies of different types of appeals (e.g., Janis & Feshbach, 1953; McGuire, 1964), source credibility (e.g. Hovland & Weiss, 1951), order effects (e.g. Hovland et al., 1957), as well as attention getting devices such as vividness (see Taylor & Thompson, 1982, for a review), all deal with non-receiver characteristics that affect communication response.
Similarly, information processing researchers have focused on aspects of the communication process other than receiver characteristics. While information processing is conceptually a consumer oriented perspective on the decision making process, research has typically dealt with both message and contextual factors that impact on how a communication message affects de-