Thomas J. Reynolds Institute for Consumer Research and University of Texas, Dallas
Jonathan Gutman University of Southern California
John A. Fiedler Ted Bates Worldwide, Inc.
Recently, a means-end framework for conceptualizing cognitive processes has received considerable attention as an alternative to traditional attributebased attitude measurement. The underlying concept for this approach involves understanding the levels of abstraction in product perception ( Gutman & Reynolds, 1979), namely the attribute -- consequence -- value hierarchical content levels that serve to interpret product perceptions in meaningful ways. The approach presented in this chapter suggests a potential improvement to either attribute or benefit or other positive consequencebased models. The improvement results from the inclusion of end benefits or values into the model. Although several applications and refinements of this theoretical perspective have been offered in the recent literature ( Young & Feigen, 1975; Gutman, 1982; Howard, 1977; see Olson & Reynolds, 1983 for a complete review), methodological implications of this approach, especially evaluation of the overall model have been noticeably absent.