Elementary School Organization and Administration

By Henry J. Otto | Go to book overview

5
Grouping Children for Wholesome Development

TEACHING CHILDREN IN groups has been and still is the prevailing method of instruction in American schools. Group instruction was first used by the Brethren of the Christian Schools about 16841 and was later developed by Andrew Bell in India and Joseph Lancaster in England.2 The monitorial or Lancastrian plan for teaching was brought to this country by the Free School Society of New York in 18063 and served a useful purpose in this country for more than 30 years by providing a means whereby large groups of children could be handled. Although numerous devices for individualizing instruction have been developed recently, group instruction still predominates in American schools. No doubt it will continue to be an important feature of educational procedure because it is believed that certain values contributing toward the social objectives of education accrue from group activities. Even in schools in which the tool subjects have been individualized, group activities are considered an important aspect of the program. Consequently, procedures for the organization of class groups must be used.


THE ORGANIZATION FOR GROUP GUIDANCE

Organizing children into groups for various kinds of school activities is such a daily, routine, commonplace occurrence in any on-going school that one is apt to overlook the fact that every school has one or more policies and practices regarding the way or ways in which these groups are assembled. Children are organized into certain groupings for classroom instructions; other groups are formed for athletic events; while still other groupings are made for other activities such as hobby clubs, assembly sessions, and dramatizations. The essential point is that every school has a

____________________
1
H. H. Ryan and Philistine Crecelius, Ability Grouping in the Junior High School ( New York, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1927), p. 19.
2
E. P. Cubberley, Public Education in the United States ( Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1919), p. 90.
3
J. F. Reigart, The Lancastrian System of Instruction in the Schools of New York City, Contributions to Education, No. 81 ( New York, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1916), Ch. IV.

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Elementary School Organization and Administration
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Editor's Introduction v
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Elementary Education in Transition 1
  • Selected Bibliography 36
  • 2 - The Role of the Elementary School 37
  • Selected Bibliography 77
  • 3 - Curriculum Issues 78
  • Selected Bibliography 124
  • 4 - General Features Of Elementary-School Organization 127
  • Selected Bibliography 164
  • 5 - Grouping Children For Wholesome Development 165
  • Selected Bibliography 220
  • 6 - Children's Progress Through the School 221
  • Selected Bibliography 286
  • 7 - Organization for Instruction 287
  • Selected Bibliography 319
  • 8 - Organization for Supervision 320
  • Selected Bibliography 351
  • 9 - Pupil Personnel Services 353
  • Selected Bibliography 403
  • 10 - Library Service 404
  • Selected Bibliography 437
  • 11 - Protection and Promotion Of Children's Health 438
  • Selected Bibliography 483
  • 12 - Educational Provisions For Exceptional Children 485
  • Selected Bibliography 537
  • 13 - The School in Its Community At Mid-Century 539
  • Selected Bibliography 581
  • 14 - Provisions for Administering The School 583
  • Clearing-House for Details Of School Operation 610
  • 15 - School-Plant Trends 612
  • Selected Bibliography 650
  • 16 - The Professional Elementary-School Principal 652
  • Selected Bibliography 691
  • Appendix 693
  • Index 715
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