Elementary School Organization and Administration

By Henry J. Otto | Go to book overview

9
Pupil Personnel Services

THE DEVELOPMENT of pupil personnel services of the public schools constitutes an interesting chapter in the history of education in the United States. The basic importance of universal public education in a democracy was recognized early in the colonial period and was given prominent consideration as the constitutions of the various states were prepared. In those days, however, little thought was given to the many problems which would confront the schools if "all the children of all the people" were actually to attend school; and the conditions of the times were such as to make it difficult to foresee very many of the changes which have come about since then. The history of compulsory attendance service, psychological service, special classes, special schools for truant and behavior cases, free textbooks, food and clothing for the indigent, and health service gives interesting insights into the changes in American culture and the changes in educational thought and practice.

Although the growth of the service activities of the public school systems has not been a gradual process, certain factors throughout the past 70 years have exerted influences which have led the schools to the establishment of separate departments and agencies for the treatment of different aspects of child growth and welfare and for the more effective administration of certain phases of school work. The rise of industrialism and the subsequent legislation regarding child-labor and compulsory school attendance brought to the public schools a wide variety of ability and behavior personalities and many types of children who, as was soon demonstrated, could not receive the maximum benefits from the existing schools.

Current trends in public education and modern conceptions of teaching were placing increased responsibilities upon the teacher as a director of learning. Developments in methods of teaching and research in educational and clinical psychology and student health provided the teacher with many new and very useful instruments and techniques for the improvement of her work, but they have, at the same time, placed upon her the inescapable responsibility of utilizing these newer devices and sources of information to improve the effectiveness of her labors.

Coincident with the above developments came a more complex eco-

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Elementary School Organization and Administration
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Editor's Introduction v
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Elementary Education in Transition 1
  • Selected Bibliography 36
  • 2 - The Role of the Elementary School 37
  • Selected Bibliography 77
  • 3 - Curriculum Issues 78
  • Selected Bibliography 124
  • 4 - General Features Of Elementary-School Organization 127
  • Selected Bibliography 164
  • 5 - Grouping Children For Wholesome Development 165
  • Selected Bibliography 220
  • 6 - Children's Progress Through the School 221
  • Selected Bibliography 286
  • 7 - Organization for Instruction 287
  • Selected Bibliography 319
  • 8 - Organization for Supervision 320
  • Selected Bibliography 351
  • 9 - Pupil Personnel Services 353
  • Selected Bibliography 403
  • 10 - Library Service 404
  • Selected Bibliography 437
  • 11 - Protection and Promotion Of Children's Health 438
  • Selected Bibliography 483
  • 12 - Educational Provisions For Exceptional Children 485
  • Selected Bibliography 537
  • 13 - The School in Its Community At Mid-Century 539
  • Selected Bibliography 581
  • 14 - Provisions for Administering The School 583
  • Clearing-House for Details Of School Operation 610
  • 15 - School-Plant Trends 612
  • Selected Bibliography 650
  • 16 - The Professional Elementary-School Principal 652
  • Selected Bibliography 691
  • Appendix 693
  • Index 715
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