(or Pedagogy for
In his lecture 'The Future of Cultural Studies' given to the Association for Cultural Studies at North East London Polytechnic (now the University of East London) in March 1986 (later published as Williams 1989), Raymond Williams argued that 'the heart' of Cultural Studies was its engagement with the relation between an intellectual project and its formation. This, he claimed, had to be applied to the project of Cultural Studies itself. 'We have to look at what kind of formation it was from which the project of Cultural Studies developed, and then at the changes of formation that produced different definitions of that project' ( Williams 1989: 152). Tracing the trajectory of Cultural Studies in his own and others' work back to the 1930s, Williams cited his teaching in adult education ('that notably unprivileged sector' [p. 154]) and later in the new universities and polytechnics, rather than any texts, as the site from which his Cultural Studies practice emerged. And it was the presence of 'new' students, women and working-class adults who had not previously had access to tertiary education and with whom Williams identified as working-class 'world'-travellers, that provided the occasion for the emergence of his Cultural Studies practice as a challenge both to existing bodies of disciplinary knowledge and traditional pedagogical practices.
Williams identified those times as a 'new educational conjuncture' brought about by changing historical, social, and cultural conditions. Central to the problematic of his Cultural Studies project was a crisis in the production and dissemination of knowledge which he saw as being constrained by a certain organization of disciplines, the push to vocational training (with its anti-intellectual overtones), and the technologiza