Carolyn Steedman, for instance, has noted that 'forms of teaching and learning' have been consistently omitted in numerous accounts of 'British' Cultural
Studies ( Steedman, 1992: 617-618).
Patrick Hughes suggested this term in a personal communication ( Dec.
Hall acknowledges the word 'new' is problematic -- first, because it suggests
a complete break from the past and, second, because 'newness' is not a universal
experience. Contemporary changes are unevenly apparent around the globe
( Hall, 1990: 116-134).
Judith Butler, for instance, writes: 'The question of postmodernism is surely a
question, for is there, after all, something called postmodernism? Is it an historical
characterization, a certain kind of theoretical position, and what does it mean for a
term that has described a certain aesthetic practice now to apply to social theory
and to feminist social and political theory in particular?' ( Butler 1992: 3-21).
My students and I have represented this movement in various ways. We've
drawn the relation between subjects and 'worlds' as concentric circles, daisy
wheels, and planetary orbits!
In reappropriating consciousness raising, I am not rejecting consciousness
per se, as does poststructuralism, but I am rejecting the old notion of consciousness based on the sovereign, unitary subject and an epistemology of identity on
which 'white' feminist practice was also founded.
Aidoo, Ama Ata ( 1991) "Conference Presentation". In
Philomena Mariani (ed.), Critical Fictions: The Politics of Imaginative Writing. Seattle: Bay Press, pp. 151-154.
Alarcon, Norma ( 1990) "The Theoretical Subject(s) of This Bridge Called My Back
and Anglo-American Feminism". In
Gloria Anzaldua (ed.), Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Women of Color. San
Francisco: Aunt Lute, pp. 356-369.
Anzaldúa, Gloria ( 1987) Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute.
Anzaldúa, Gloria (ed.) ( 1990) Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative
and Critical Perspectives by Women of Color. San Francisco: Aunt Lute.
Bailey, David A., &
Stuart Hall ( 1992) "Critical Decade: Black British Photography
in the '80's". Ten8: 2, 3.
Bhabha, Homi ( 1986) "Signs Taken for Wonders: Questions of Ambivalence and
Authority under a Tree Outside Delhi, May 1817". In
Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
(ed.), 'Race', Writing and Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Brewer, Rose M. ( 1989) "Black Women and Feminist Sociology: The Emerging Perspective". The American Sociologist ( Spring): 57-68.
Butler, Judith ( 1992) Contingent Foundations: Feminism and the Question of
Judith Butler and
Joan W. Scott (eds.), Feminists Theorize
the Political. London & New York: Routledge, pp. 3-21.