Taxation and Economic Development among Pacific Asian Countries

By Richard A. Musgrave; Ching-Huei Chang et al. | Go to book overview
5.
Where agricultural firms do make significant use of inputs and machinery taxable under the VAT, they may actually seek to register for VAT in order to enable them to credit taxes paid on their purchases against taxes due on sales.
6.
The decision to include refined petroleum products in the VAT base was made at some political cost because gasoline, kerosene, and similar products were never subject to the old turnover tax. But once that decision was made, it was apparent that with a uniform rate, and virtually no exemptions, the VAT would be among the simplest and most collectible of any tax ever implemented anywhere.
7.
For example, loudspeakers and stereo systems were subject both to the VAT and to the special luxury tax. When these items were sold to traders or consumers, they were taxed only once. But when they were sold to electronic companies to be incorporated in their stereo systems, they were taxed twice, and the electronic companies could not credit the luxury tax against VAT due on sales. Automobile air conditioners were subject only to the VAT, not to the luxury sales tax. But sedans were subject to a 20 percent luxury tax. If the sedan was sold with air-conditioning, the unit was taxed at 20 percent as part of the value of the car. But if the buyer took the car without an air conditioner, purchased one, and had it installed at a garage, the unit escaped the luxury tax.

References

Bird, Richard ( 1989). "The Administrative Dimension of Tax Reform in Developing Countries," in Gillis, editor, Tax Reform in Developing Countries ( Durham, Duke University Press).

Chenery, Hollis, and Strout, Alan ( 1966). "Foreign Assistance and Economic Development," American Economic Review, Volume 57, pp. 679-733.

Due, John ( 1957). Sales Taxation ( Urbana, University of Illinois Press).

Flatters, Frank (1988). "Trade Policy Reform in Indonesia," prepared for HIID Conference on Systems Reform in LDCs, Marrakech, Morocco, 25-29 October 1988.

Gillis, Malcolm ( 1984). "Episodes in Indonesian Economic Growth," in Arnold C. Harberger , editor, World Economic Growth ( San Francisco, Institute for Contemporary Studies).

Gillis, Malcolm ( 1985). "Micro and Macroeconomics of Tax Reform: Indonesia," Journal of Development Economics, Volume 19, p. 221.

Gillis, Malcolm, editor ( 1989a). Tax Reform in Developing Countries ( Durham, Duke University Press).

Gillis, Malcolm ( 1989b). "Tax Reform: Lessons from Post-War Experience in Developing Nations," in Gillis, editor, Tax Reform in Developing Countries ( Durham, Duke University Press).

Gillis, Malcolm ( 1989c). "Comprehensive Tax Reform: The Indonesian Experience 1981-1988," in Gillis, editor, Tax Reform in Developing Countries.

Gillis, Malcolm, Shoup, Carl, and Sicat, Gerardo ( 1989). The Value-Added Tax in Developing Countries ( Washington, DC, World Bank, Symposium Series).

Hirschman, Albert ( 1963). Journeys Toward Progress ( New York, Twentieth Century Fund).

-42-

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Taxation and Economic Development among Pacific Asian Countries
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Notes 10
  • 2 - Indonesian Tax Reform, 1985-1990 11
  • Notes 41
  • References 42
  • 3 - The Tax System and Economic Development in Japan 44
  • Notes 61
  • References 62
  • 4 - Tax Reform in the Philippines 64
  • Notes 80
  • 5 - Tax Reform in Malaysia: Trends and Options 82
  • Notes 100
  • References 101
  • 6 - Property Taxation as a National Policy Tool in Taiwan 104
  • Notes 116
  • References 116
  • Notes 137
  • References 138
  • 8 - Effective Corporate Tax Rates on Capital Income in Hong Kong 140
  • Notes 153
  • 9 - Tax Policy and Business Investment: Taiwan's Manufacturing Industry 156
  • Notes 165
  • References 167
  • 10 - The International Dimension of Korean Tax Policy 168
  • Notes 191
  • References 192
  • 11 - Tax Incentives for Export Promotion in Japan, 1953-1964 194
  • Notes 207
  • References 208
  • 12 - International Aspects of Income Taxation in Taiwan 210
  • Notes 221
  • References 223
  • 13 - Financing Social Security in Singapore Through the Central Provident Fund 225
  • Notes 255
  • References 255
  • 14 - A New Role for Fiscal Policy and Tax Finance in Korea 259
  • Notes 275
  • References 276
  • About the Book 280
  • About the Editors and Contributors 281
  • Index 283
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