limit. Premiums can be based on income, with risk-pooling arrangements. Another possibility is that the contributions to the ordinary account in the CPF could be split into two parts, with one part functioning as it does now and the other part using the risk-pooling feature of social insurance. It would be much easier to shift from the present arrangements to introduction of modest social insurance elements than for the welfare states to shift in the direction of greater individual or family responsibility. This difficulty of reversibility should be kept in mind in any shift from the present arrangements.
Given the organic and paternalistic nature of the Singapore state, its needs will have a strong bearing on the reform of present social security arrangements. The manner and the extent of these reforms in turn can be expected to have far-reaching effects on the economic, social, and political life of Singapore.
Asher, M. G., 1985. "Forced Saving to Finance Merit Goods: An Economic Analysis of the Central Provident Fund Scheme of Singapore," Centre for Research on Federal Financial Relations, the Australian National University, Occasional Paper No. 36.
-----, 1991. "Social Adequacy and Equity of the Social Security Arrangements in Singapore," Centre for Advanced Studies, National University of Singapore, Occasional Paper No. 8, Singapore.