LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY
War everywhere tested a society's capacity to provide logistical backing as much as its ability to raise soldiers. This was certainly true of the British and Irish Civil Wars, for the business of supplying weapons, ammunition, provisions, and transport (in the form of horses) to the various armies fighting in England, Scotland, and Ireland proved to be no easy matter. The raising of money -- the sinew of any war -- to pay, clothe, arm, and care for the troops proved an even greater headache. How then did the combatants acquire their weapons, munitions, rations, uniforms, and mounts? What impact did a decade of incessant warfare have on domestic economic development, especially the arms industry, and on commerce and trade? Finally, to what extent did logistics determine the outcome of the various civil wars?
Civil war armies comprised three elements -- infantry, cavalry, and artillery -- each with its appropriate weaponry and equipment. The majority of musketeers carried a matchlock, which fired by igniting gunpowder in the 'pan' or breech with a smouldering match, and despatched a round lead ball. While it proved woefully inaccurate, difficult to handle, and slow to reload, it was quite effective in volleys. Snaphance and flintlock muskets, with a mechanism similar to a modern petrol lighter, were more efficient, but more expensive and difficult to make. By and large, only troops guarding the artillery and ammunition wagons, where a lighted match could spell disaster, used them. Originally, dragoons (mounted musketeers) used a 'dragon', a short-barrelled carbine; later a flintlock musket became more usual. (None of these firearms were accurate enough for snipers, who tended to fire civilian birding and fowling pieces.) In addition, each musketeer needed cartouches for his powder, carried on a bandolier slung across his