Czechoslovakia was formed in 1918 from former provinces of Austria ( Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia -- called the Czech lands), from former provinces of Hungary ( Slovakia and Sub- Carpathian Ruthenia), and from a small area of Germany (Upper Silesia).
Simultaneously with the formation of Czechoslovakia, on October 28, 1918, Law No. 11 of 1918 was enacted, by virtue of which the Austrian and Hungarian laws remained in effect in their respective provinces, subject to subsequent repeal or amendment by Czechoslovak legislation. Application of the most important Austrian laws was later extended to the former German area (Law of January 30, 1920, No. 76, and Decree of March 11, 1920, No. 152).
Thus, in fact two jurisdictions did, and to an extent still do exist in Czechoslovakia: the provinces with the heritage of Austrian laws and those with the heritage of Hungarian laws.
Conditions in Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia are not treated in the present study because under the Treaty of June 29, 1945 (Law of November 22, 1945, No. 2 of 1946 Coll.), it was ceded to the Soviet Union and is not at the present time a part of Czechoslovakia.
The Czechoslovak Republic was formed at a time ( 1918) when after a prolonged struggle the great ideals of freedom of conscience and freedom of religion had gained wide recognition in the free world and had become essential elements of the legal order of the modern democratic state. At first strong efforts were made in Czechoslovakia to put across new and revolutionary