Re-Thinking Missions: A Laymen's Inquiry after One Hundred Years

By William Ernest Hocking; Laymen's Foreign Missions Inquiry. Commission of Appraisal | Go to book overview

CHAPTER XI
MISSIONS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY

1. Introduction

MR. R. H. TAWNEY in his book "Equality" says, "An agricultural society, with its scattered household and unspecialized economic life, is normally both unconscious of requiring elaborate social services and incapable of providing them. Nor on its first plunge into the world of great industry does it realize their necessity. Carrying the habits of the peasant into its new urban environment, it proceeds for a generation to poison its body and starve its soul, before it realizes that what is innocuous in a village is deadly in a town . . . The result is the paradox of rising pecuniary incomes and deepening social misery . . . which has emerged in all industrial revolutions, to the confusion of those who forget that the timid staring creature, man, is so compounded as to require not only money, but light, air, and water, not to mention such uneconomic goods as tranquillity, beauty, and affection."

This striking paragraph may serve as an introduction to a study of the relation of missions to the problems of industry. These problems are modified by conditions of climate and social environment which it is well briefly to review.


2. Climate

Climate is one of the most important factors in molding the activities of men. A moderately cool and moist climate has generally been considered best for developing industry.

There is, in the West, little manufacturing in hot coastal climates. But in India some of the largest factories are in the areas of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras where the weather is

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