Russia's Missing Middle Class: The Professions in Russian History

By Harley D. Balzer | Go to book overview

3
The Engineering Profession
in Tsarist Russia

HARLEY D. BALZER

Engineers in tsarist Russia managed to develop a strong sense of professional identity despite their inability to establish a national professional organization or attain professional autonomy. The engineers' situation of thwarted professionalism contributes to our understanding of the social and political context in which they worked and helps point to the reasons engineers were among the Russian professional groups that adapted relatively successfully to Soviet power. The approach here will be bifocal: The "near" image is a social history of Russian engineers before the revolution, paying particular attention to education and professional activity; but we will periodically raise our gaze, using the "distant" lens to point out aspects of engineers' behavior and situation that became important subsequently.

The crucial forges of a profession are education and professional organizations, and there is a reciprocal relationship between them. 1 In most instances a small group of leading practitioners seeks to institutionalize standards of practice and professional behavior through influence on educational establishments. 2 Once firmly established, the educational institutions exert an important influence on the "collective personality" of the profession, and on the larger society. Criteria for admission to the schools become crucial regulators of social mobility. Graduates' exclusive claims to particular jobs further enforce social stratification. And the worldview internalized by students profoundly influences their subsequent professional behavior. 3


Early Development of the Engineering Profession

A coterie of leading practitioners intent on fostering engineering professionalism in Russia appeared only after the Crimean War. Before the 1860s a pattern of education and employment that may be described as "ministerial" dominated most specialized fields: an individual was trained in a (usually militarized) special school operated by a government ministry, and after graduating spent his entire career working for that ministry. 4 The Great

-55-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Russia's Missing Middle Class: The Professions in Russian History
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 330

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.