Building Rules: How Local Controls Shape Community Environments and Economies

By Kee Warner; Harvey Molotch | Go to book overview

and institutional resources ( Stone, 1981; Alford and Friedland, 1985) -- to co-opt or otherwise derail their opponents' efforts?

If citizen resistance results, in fact, in effective and economically viable controls, this suggests the potential benefits of other political innovations that might seem to "interfere" with markets. Almost any effort to regulate on behalf of quality of life and environment is likely to be attacked as countermanding the wisdom of the market. Environmentalism at any level must respond to these charges: The successes of urban environmentalists may offer a model.


Plan of the Book

Now that we have presented the questions that drive our research, we will go on (in Chapter 2) to describe our study sites and the actual content of their growth control measures. Chapter 3 presents (in quantified terms) the impacts of these measures on building activity levels across our sites; that is, it answers the question of whether or not growth was "stopped." We then go on, in Chapter 4, to explain how developers and other growth interests function under growth control; we consider their strategies to overcome the impediments placed in their path -- in other words, we look at how cities grow under growth control. In Chapter 5, we simulate a developer's efforts to build actual projects across our sites and thus begin the work of laying out the ways new regulations have indeed affected the content of growth. Chapter 6 continues this work of specifying the effects of growth control by analyzing the kind of growth localities experienced in relation to the kinds of development their civic traditions and planning policies tried to foster. Finally, we use Chapter 7 to sum up by assessing wins and losses, pointing to the ways intervention in land markets -- and by implication other spheres as well -- can improve the quality of life without sacrificing economic vitality, even in the narrow sense of the term.


Notes
1.
Economists have often studied these "externalities" by proxy, assuming that all the pertinent negative spillovers and positive amenities are built into housing prices (see Fischel, 1990; Mark and Goldberg, 1981; Li and Brown, 1980).
2.
Such influential environmentalists as Donella Meadows and her colleagues ( 1992) make a distinction between growth (which means getting quantitatively bigger) and development (which means getting qualitatively better by building local capacities). Although this is a valuable analytic distinction, in this book we use development in the more vernacular sense of what real estate developers do.
3.
For evidence that low-income people bear the biggest pollution brunt, see Berry, 1977; Buttel and Flinn, 1978; Bullard, 1990, 1993, 1994.

-21-

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Building Rules: How Local Controls Shape Community Environments and Economies
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Illustrations ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • 1 - The Relevance of Regulation 1
  • Notes 21
  • 2 - Sites 23
  • Notes 50
  • 3 - Has Growth Been Stopped? Not Much 52
  • Notes 58
  • 4 - Power to Build: How Cities Grow Under Growth Control 59
  • Notes 76
  • 5 - Project Peddling: What Gets Approved and How 78
  • Notes 102
  • 6 - Indirect Effects: How Building Rules Make Growth Different 104
  • Notes 127
  • 7 - Building the Rules 129
  • Notes 147
  • Appendix A: - Measuring Growth Control Impacts 149
  • Notes to Appendix A 156
  • Appendix B: Chronologies of Growth Control 157
  • Appendix C - Commercial Valuation Data, 1970-1990 167
  • Appendix E: Case Study Details 171
  • Appendix F: Interview Schedule 183
  • Reference List 185
  • Index 201
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