Nongovernments: NGOs and the Political Development of the Third World

By Julie Fisher | Go to book overview

Notes
1
By "complimentary," Najam ( 1996b) means that NGOs coordinate or at least take account of one another's field activities. See also Farrington and Bebbington's ( 1993, 127-8) discussion.
2
Clark ( 1995, 597) describes another pattern characterized by NGOs becoming "dependent clients" of the state, as in Tanzania during the 1980s or China today. This could be added as a subcategory of cooperation. Riker ( 1995a, 23) adds another category -- competition between NGOs and governments. However, he gives no examples of this, and I have been unable to find any in the literature.
3
When multiple goals are pursued, one is sometimes achieved at the expense of the other. Jane Covey ( 1996, 205) notes that the cancellation of the Sierra Madre forest project by Mexico and the World Bank had "no civil society impact" because the NGO problem definition and tactics were suited to achieving policy change with institutions that themselves have low levels of public accountability, such as the World Bank. A logging ban pushed by environmental NGOs in the Philippines did succeed in building a grassroots environmental constituency, however.
4
I recently visited Lake Atitlan as part of an evaluation for Trickle Up. Although the area still suffers from violence, it is now less likely to be politically motivated than it was in 1990.
5
Beatrice Chileshe, presentation at the Association for Women in Development, Washington, D.C., 1987.
6
Presentation by Ezra Mgani at the symposium Shaping the Policy Debate: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in International Development, John F. Kennedy School, Harvard University, April 22, 1993. Sometimes, NGOs play a more aggressive international role. In 1988-89, the Sudan Council of Churches was actively involved in peacemaking between the government and the Southern Peoples Liberation Army. The council sent a delegation to Europe, North America, and other African countries to encourage them to help. Through its ties with Church World Service, it asked the U.S. government to put pressure on the Sudanese government to reach a settlement (see Korten 1990, 188-9).
7
Ironically, FEE has been helped by the absence of a national NGO association.
8
Agus Purnomo at an Asia Society conference entitled Beyond Boundaries: Issues in Asian and American Environmental Activism, April 24-26, 1991.
9
See also Society for Participatory Research in Asia 1991.
10
See also Welch's ( 1995, 198) discussion of South Africa's Legal Resources Center, which employed forty-two lawyers as of 1992, processing 3,000 new cases in that year alone.
11
For example, the Indian Council of NGOs is a consultative organ of the Parliament ( Gueneau 1988).
12
Interview with Connecticut State Representative Irving Stolberg, after his visit to Brazil in 1988.
13
According to Edwards and Hulme ( 1996a, 5), there are still few examples of NGOs entering the formal political process.

-132-

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Nongovernments: NGOs and the Political Development of the Third World
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Foreword vii
  • Preface xi
  • 1 - Ngos, Civil Society, and Political Development 1
  • Notes 32
  • 2 - Government Policies Toward Ngos: Political Context and the Growth of Civil Society 39
  • Notes 69
  • 3 the Impact of NGOs on Governments: the Role of NGO Autonomy 75
  • Notes 99
  • 4 - Promoting Democratization and Sustainable Development 105
  • Notes 132
  • 5 - Subnational Governments and Ngos 135
  • Notes 155
  • 6 - Civil Society, Democracy, and Political Development 159
  • Notes 187
  • Glossary 191
  • References 193
  • Index 227
  • About the Author 237
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