In the case of Chicago, Bradley and Zald have shown that the emergence of
the "political machine" very much helped to marginalize the old "economic
dominants" and to further the rise of a specialized political elite ( Bradley and Zald 1965
This accords well with many other findings that have shown that political
parties are particularly prone to be very conservative organizations surviving
without major reforms under highly variable societal and political conditions.
Thus, Lipset and Rokkan have shown that contemporary party systems are still
deeply shaped by very outdated (e.g., religious or class-related) societal cleavages ( Lipset and Rokkan 1967). Similarly, Harmel and Janda have found that national parties founded in earlier epochs have preserved lower levels of "organizational complexity" than parties of more recent origin ( Harmel and
See Chapter 5 by Herbert Schneider (on Germany), Chapter 12 by Sabine
Kropp (on Russia), and Chapter 11 by Zbigniew Zychowicz (on Poland) in this
Thus, the erroneous prejudice that American parties were very poorly organized (see Harmel and
Janda 1982, 52ff
.) has at least partially been caused by a
too-lengthy ignorance about the local party level.
For the French case, see Prêteceille ( 1968).
Daniel Goldrich, and
Bert E. Swanson. 1964. The Ruler and the
Ruled: Political Power and Impotence in American Communities. New York: Wiley.
Alford, R. R., and
H. M. Scoble. 1968. "Sources of Local Political Involvement". American Political Science Review 62:1192-1206.
Arzberger, Karl. 1980. Bürger und Eliten in der Kommunalpolitik. Stuttgart:Kohlhammer.
Banfield, E. C., and
J. Q. Wilson. 1965. City Politics. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
Beck, Paul Allen. 1974. "Environment and Party: The Impact of Political and Demographic Characteristics on Party Behavior". American Political Science Review 68:1229-1244.
Bibby, John F.,
James L. Gibson,
Cornelius P. Cotter, and
Robert J. Huckshorn. 1983. "Trends in Party Organizational Strength, 1960-1980". International Poltical Science Review 4:21-27.
Black, Gordon S. 1974. "Conflict in the Community: A Theory of the Effects of
Community Size". American Political Science Review 68:1245-1261.
Bledsoe, Timothy, and
Susan Welch. 1988. "Patterns of Political Party Activity
Among U.S. Cities". Urban Affairs Quarterly 23:249-269.
Bone, H. A. 1952. Grass-Roots Party Leadership. Seattle: University of Washington, Bureau of Government Research.