a third factor, and so on. The procedure uses an eigenvalue criterion of 1.0 or
greater to determine the number of factors to be extracted. If a second factor fails
to generate an eigenvalue greater than 1.0, the program settles on a one-factor solution. Consistent with our expectations, the factor analysis confirms that a onefactor solution best captures the underlying structure of the mayors' responses
about local party salience.
Our measure of population is logged to account for variations in communities across countries.
All units are per capita wealth or income for the United States.
Educational attainment is measured by the average number of years of formal education.
Working-class population is measured by the percentage of manufacturing
Among the many potential measures of hierarchy, we have selected educational inequality. Our justification is simply that data on educational attainment
are the most widely available, allowing the preservation of the maximum possible number of cases. Alternative measures developed by Clark ( 1994a)
those based on national origin, income, and occupational status, overlap significantly to the extent that one measure reinforces another. The intercorrelations
among the four measures are strong enough to indicate that cities with more nonwhites have more inequality in income, education, and other indicators of hierarchy. Thus, it matters little which measure we use.
We measure younger populations according to the percentage of persons between 25 and 34 years of age.
Norway was not included in this series of models because the Norwegian
FAUI survey did not include questions about group responsiveness.
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