difficult at the local level for these parties to demarcate their political philosophy and program in an individual way, we find Liberals and Conservatives sitting on council as independents or find them grouped in
The final question concerns the reasons for the presence of an important contingent of independents in two of the four central cities considered. It appears that right-of-center candidates are in an advantageous
position to run as independents. They can draw informally on the Liberal
and Conservative Parties' organizational resources and, more important,
enjoy campaign funding from business interests, specifically from the development industry. This state of affairs lessens the incentive for these
candidates to form or join civic parties. Things are different on the left,
where a political organization is needed to make up for a more difficult
fund-raising context. This explains why the NDP is the only senior-level
party to have been involved in more than one of the cities examined here.
In the twentieth century, two movements attempted to transform comprehensively municipal politics: municipal reformism, whose period of influence
broadly went from the turn of the century to the 1960s, and neoreformism, which
changed the municipal scene of a number of Canadian cities from the mid-1960s
on. The perspectives upheld by these two movements are antipodal. Municipal
reformism upheld a minimization of local democracy's expression and the implementation of large expert-driven projects, whereas the neoreformists championed public participation and neighborhood protection.
For most of the period covered in this chapter, three parties dominated the
federal scene and that of a number of provinces. There is the Conservative Party,
which stands between the right and the center right of the political spectrum. In 1993, this party virtually disappeared from the federal scene. To some extent, the
position occupied by the Conservatives is now taken by the Reform Party, which
stands, however, further to the right. The Liberals navigate between the center
right and the center left, and the NDP occupies the range from the left to the center of the spectrum.
Some of the information presented in this section originates from an interview with William Neville.
Some of the information presented in this section originates from an interview with Paul Tennant.
Anderson, J. D. 1972. "Nonpartisan Urban Politics in Canadian Cities". In
J. K. Masson
J. D. Anderson, eds., Emerging Party Politics in Urban Canada, 5-21. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.