Even in these cases, candidates and even parties campaign because candidates must win an endorsement of a majority of voters. A maximum of 8.6 percent of the cases in this study may represent nonpartisan elections.
This survey was conducted by members of the research group Parteien und
Wahlen in der Pfalz, 1946-1984.
In the CDU, these units are known as "Ortsverbaende"; in the SPD they are
known as "Ortsvereine." In the text, they will be referred to as both "local parties" and "branch parties."
Party response rates were similar: 69.7 percent for SPD party leaders, and
65.1 percent for CDU leaders. Respondents returned 549 completed questionnaires.
An additional 17 percent reported using just one such technique.
The latter are loose groups that nominate candidates at the local government
level only. Although free voters' groups do not nominate candidates in every
community; their candidates are very successful in some communities (particularly in small ones).
Pearson's r = .54, p < .01.
Of these, 242 took chief responsibility, 261 said chief responsibility lay at a
higher level, and the rest of the 531 in the survey gave no answer.
Pearson's r = .23, p < .01.
Pearson's r = .30, p < .01.
Beige, H. P.,
H. J. Siewert, and
G. Wehling. 1978. Zwischen PersÖnlichkeitswahl und Parteientscheidung. Meisenheim am Glan: Anton Hain.
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_____. 1974b. Regiebuch 5: Kommunalwahlkampf. Bonn: CDU.
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