ential person in their town, compared to 50 percent of the new mayors, who have
spent less than fifteen months in office and who feel the same way). One new
mayor in four refers to more powerful patrons, whereas only 4 percent of the
long-incumbent mayors think of another political leader when asked about the
most influential person in the community.
The typology was three questions aimed to measure the intensity of the relations with more than twenty actors of the local political and bureaucratic arena
and the degree of collaboration with the mayor, at the current moment and before
the election. For a description of the technique and of the theoretical frame, see Recchi ( 1993)
We designated as "outsiders" the political actors in any party structure or
any elected assembly who were in charge.
The networks of the shopkeepers seem to show a new phase in the history
of patronage relations in the Italian city. Shopkeepers close themselves within
inner circles of the local power, around which groups of councillors and assessori, a member of parliament, representatives of interest groups, and journalists
may converge, with whom they try without apparent success to maintain a fruitful collaboration.
"The primitive dependence of the clients from the patrician families faded
(...) and the Institution of patronage wicked. If in ancient times, the client, to obtain protection must depend exclusively from the mediation of the patron, the
more the State consolidated (and consequently diminished the importance of the
patrician consortiums), the more the king, even without the mediation of a patron, could grant justice and reparations to the clients" ( Mommsen 1960, 50).
Pareto distinguished three parties in the ruling class: "(a) men who aim at
ideal objectives, strictly obeying peculiar rules of behaviour; (b) men who aim at
providing good for themselves and their clients. We can divide the latter in two
categories: those (ba) who content themselves by enjoying power and honours
and who leave the material profits to their clients; those (bb) who search for material profits, generally money, for themselves and their clients" ( Pareto 1964, par.
2268, p. 423).
Barberis C. 1993. La classe politica municipale. Milano: Angeli.
Bettin, G., and
A. Magnier. 1989. Il consigliere comunale. Padova: Cedam.
-----. 1991. Chi governa la città? Una ricerca sugli assessori comunali. Padova: Cedam.
G. Lattes, 1995. "I cittadini, le generazioni e l'immagine del sindaco". Queste Istituzioni ( 23):3-30.
G. Lattes, and
A. Magnier. 1995. "I nuovi sindaci: Come cambia una carriera politica". Rivista Italiana di Scienza Della Politica ( 1):91-118.
Boissevain, J. 1977. "When the Saints Go Marching Out". In
E. Gellner and
, eds., Patrons and Clients in Mediterranean Societies, 81-96. London: Duckworth.