The challenge facing the Democratic Party, then, is to shift its focus away from simple aggregate economic growth (and policies with high marketing content) toward a more clearly substantive approach that can generate middle-class prosperity. This, in turn, may call for a new marketing strategy, since the party's approach probably will call for the use of greater resources and more government than many in the middle class are currently prepared to endorse. 25 Is such a marketing strategy even possible? It is difficult to say with any certainty. What can be said is that it is central to the Democrats' efforts that they implement programs that might substantially benefit their electoral target: white, middle-income, middle-education voters. If unable to implement these programs, they will be thrown back on the politics of symbolism -- a politics well suited to defeating unpopular incumbents but poorly suited to reviving middle-class faith in the Democratic Party and activist government.