The Middle East in Transition: Studies in Contemporary History

By Walter Z. Laqueur | Go to book overview

THE SHAMIL PROBLEM

by PAUL B. HENZE


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

SHAMIL, BORN in 1797 and most active in the years 1834-59, was the last and the most successful of the great Moslem resistance leaders who fought to stem the Russian advance into the Caucasus. Based in his native Dagestan, his movement spread to include more than a dozen mountain peoples, most of whom were to some degree inspired by a form of militant, fundamentalist Islam called Muridism. While Shamil and his followers would probably have welcomed Turkish or Western assistance, they received no substantial aid from abroad. Hopes which rose high during the Crimean War were shattered as 'the Allies neglected an opportunity which will never recur of placing a belt of independent tribes in a position of vast natural strength rearwards of the Russian movement in Asia'.1 Shamil was captured by Russian forces in 1859. Several hundred thousand Caucasian mountaineers fled to various parts of the Middle East in the years that followed. Large-scale Caucasian resistance thus ended, but Shamil has remained a legendary hero among the native Moslem peoples of the Caucasus to the present day. The fact that he lived comfortably for twelve years after his capture under protective surveillance in Russia and eventually died on a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1871 is an interesting measure of the difference between the Tsarist and Soviet régimes in treatment of resistance leaders.

Few pre-Revolutionary Russian historians were entirely negative in their evaluation of Shamil. The bravery and colourfulness of the Caucasian mountaineers have always appealed to Russians. There

____________________
1
F. H. Skrine, The Expansion of Russia, 1815-1900 ( Cambridge, 1904), p. 134.

-415-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Middle East in Transition: Studies in Contemporary History
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 518

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.