DE STIJL WAS one of two movements in Holland whose architecture was derived in part, at least, from the work or ideas of Berlage. The other movement, Wendingen or the Amsterdam School, was the more indebted to his actual work, which it evolved into a fantasticated handicraft style, eclectic rather than inventive, inclusive not exclusive in its attitude to forms and materials. De Stijl, on the other hand, was more indebted to his theories or, it might be better to say, his attitudes of mind, and set out to be Rationalist and disciplined, exclusive not inclusive, preferring a limited range of materials, forms and structural methods.
It is common practice to link the names of the two towns Rotterdam and Amsterdam to these two schools of thought, as if they were produced by some special local character of the citizens, but neither tendency is particularly localised as far as the distribution of its important monuments is concerned, and de Stijl might equally well be coupled with Utrecht on that score. What seems more relevant, is a discrimination based on matters of date--J. J. P. Oud, the dominating architectural figure of the early phase of de Stijl, was not born until 1890, and his earliest characteristic work, the rest-home de Vonk at Noordwijkerhout, was built in 1917, whereas Michel de Klerk, the equivalent figure in Amsterdam, was born as early as 1884, with his earliest characteristic work, the Hillehuis, built in 1911. This interval of six years seems to have been crucial: it meant that Oud's style matured, as will be seen later in this chapter, under the influence of Cubist and Futurist art, while de Klerk's matured in the long twilight of Dutch Art Nouveau.
However, in spite of this strict primacy of date, Wendingen (which was rather long-lived as twentieth-century movements go) did not become of international importance until the very beginning of the Twenties, when it established a short-lived liaison with Berlin Expressionists, and it is therefore proposed to deal first with the early phase of de Stijl, then with Wendingen and its international connections, and lastly with de Stijl's participation in the international Abstract Art Movement that over-ran all Expressionist tendencies after 1922