Behaviorism: A Conceptual Reconstruction

By G. E. Zuriff | Go to book overview

Notes

1. GENERAL OVERVIEW
1.
For the use of "praxiology," see Moore ( 1923) and Harrell and Harrison ( 1938), for "behavioristics," see Roback ( 1923, p. 200), Hebb ( 1958, pp. 3-4), Price ( 1961), and Hempel ( 1969), and for "anthroponomy," see Hunter ( 1930a).
2.
This distinction between behaviorism and the science of behavior is discussed by Roback ( 1923, pp. 200-201), Watson ( 1930, pp. 18-19), Hunter ( 1930a), Spence ( 1948), Skinner ( 1963a; 1967; 1974, pp. 3-8), and Hebb ( 1980, pp. 8-10).
3.
This aspect of behaviorism is criticized by Newbury ( 1953), Spielberger and DeNike ( 1966), Kessell ( 1969), Bowers ( 1973), and Brewer ( 1974).
4.
"Conceptual framework" avoids the question as to whether behaviorism constitutes a "scientific paradigm," or "disciplinary matrix," in Kuhn ( 1962/1970; 1974) sense. Those suggesting that it does include Katahn and Koplin ( 1968), Burnham ( 1968), Palermo ( 1970; 1971), Kendler and Spence ( 1971), Segal and Lachman ( 1972), Brewer ( 1974), Dulany ( 1974), and Lachman, Lachman, and Butterfield ( 1979, pp. 27-28, 39-46). Watson ( 1967) and Turner ( 1971, pp. 7-11) describe it as "pre-paradigmatic," while D. L. Krantz ( 1972), Berlyne ( 1975), and Robinson ( 1979, ch. 3) conceptualize it in other ways. Briskman ( 1972) and Mackenzie ( 1972; 1977, ch. 1). argue that behaviorism is not a scientific paradigm. Eysenck ( 1970), Krasner ( 1971), and Dunlap and Lieberman ( 1973) claim that behavior therapy represents a Kuhnian paradigm, and for further discussion see Wilson ( 1978) and Kazdin ( 1978, ch. 1). The controversy is difficult to resolve partly because the concept of a "scientific paradigm" is vague, as Masterman ( 1970) and Shapere ( 1971) note, and partly because there is no universally accepted characterization of behaviorism.
5.
Already in 1924, Woodworth ( 1924) distinguishes four varieties of behaviorism, while a bit later, Williams ( 1931) distinguishes five.
6.
See McLeish ( 1981) for example. Cohen ( 1974) discusses the distinction between the critical philosophy of science and the history of scientific ideas.
7.
See also Woodworth ( 1924) and Suppes ( 1969c).
8.
There have been many attempts to characterize behaviorism. These include proposals by Lashley ( 1923a), de Laguna ( 1927/1963, pp. 123-131), Kuo ( 1928), Maltzman ( 1966), Brody and Oppenheim ( 1966), Day ( 1976a; 1980), and Ledwidge ( 1978).
9.
Wittgenstein ( 1953, pp. 31-36, 1958; pp. 17-20), Bambrough ( 1960-1961), Achinstein ( 1969), Rosch and Mervis ( 1975). Harzem and Miles ( 1978, pp. 34-35) also use the concept of family resemblance to characterize behaviorism, and Erwin ( 1978, pp. 37-46) uses it to describe behavior therapy.
10.
See Roback ( 1937, pp. 152-163) for a "who's who" of behaviorism in its first 25 years.

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Behaviorism: A Conceptual Reconstruction
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Chapter 1 General Overview 1
  • Part I the Science 11
  • Chapter 2 Observation: the Case Against Introspection 13
  • Conclusion 28
  • Chapter 3: The Behavioral Data Language 29
  • Chapter 4 Theoretical Concepts 55
  • Chapter 5: Theorizing 81
  • Part II Behavior 97
  • Chapter 6 S-R 99
  • Conclusion 117
  • Chapter 7: The Organization of Behavior 119
  • Chapter 8: Complex Processes 150
  • Part III Mind 173
  • Conclusion 199
  • Chapter 10: Behavioral Interpretation 201
  • Chapter 11 First-Person Reports 225
  • Conclusion 248
  • Chapter 12: Behavioral Epistemology 250
  • Notes 279
  • References Cited 317
  • Index 363
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