Political Science: The State of the Discipline II

By Ada W. Finifter | Go to book overview
Over all the parties, the two scales were virtually uncorrelated, r=.03. ( Janda 1980b, 156-157).
17.
Huntington ( 1965) defines autonomy in terms of interests rather than structure. He requires autonomous organizations to "have their own interests and values indistinguishable from those of other social forces" (p. 401).
18.
Out of 905 abstracts on political parties identified in a DIALOG™ search, only 25 mentioned finance or funding; only a few dealt specifically with party finance; and none that were remotely comparative were in English.
19.
Not only did the former "satellite" parties of ruling Communist parties in Eastern Europe (e.g., the four minor parties in the German Democratic Republic) clearly lack autonomy, but some scholars contended that they should not be regarded as separate parties. However, their survival after the collapse of the ruling party indicated that they had distinct organizations, albeit subservient ones.
20.
For a defense of the Middle-Level Elite project, see Reif, Niedermayer, and Schmitt ( 1986).
21.
A later definition by Belloni and Beller ( 1978), is conceptually identical. They define faction as "any relatively organized groups that exists within the context of some other group and which (as political faction) competes with rivals for power advantages within the larger group of which it is a part" (p. 419, emphasis in original).
22.
Five indicators of involvement -- severity of membership requirements, membership participation, material incentives, purposive incentives, and doctrinism -- were used to produce a scale with an alpha reliability coefficient of .78 ( Janda 1980b, 154-155).
23.
Koelble ( 1989) has contended that Michels's "iron law" did not apply to the West German Green Party, when organization did not result in oligarchy.
24.
See Schlesinger ( 1991, 135-145) for a trenchant analysis of these opposing positions.
25.
Although Schlesinger used the term "office-seeking" in referring to his theory (1991, 143), it is really a "vote-seeking" theory when compared to the European usage of office-seeking. See Strom ( 1990).
26.
Przeworski and Sprague explain their title, Paper Stones, with this statement: "Barricades were no longer needed when workers could cast ballots: votes were 'paper stones.'" (1986, 1).
27.
Duverger's chapter on "Strength and Alliances" ( 1963, 281-351) dealt with indicators of governmental status.
28.
But Hibbs's research drew criticism from Payne ( 1979) for biased selection of cases, and other methodological issues, to which Hibbs replied ( 1979).
29.
In keeping with Duverger's own broad view of comparative party analysis, these linkages were empirically supported by data that included restrictive and subversive parties in communist and Third World countries along with the larger group of mostly competitive parties in democratic regimes ( Janda 1979). The numbers of parties underlying each proposition varied from 79 to 135 ( Janda and King 1985).
30.
For a dissent on the value of Duverger's work, see Daalder ( 1983, 10-12).
31.
Von Beyme was replying to an earlier review of the German edition of his book, which found "incomprehensible" his "lack of interest in general theory" ( Raschke 1983, 109).

Bibliography

Abramov, Yury K., and Alexander N. Darchiyev. 1992. Political Parties and Movements in Russia, 1985-1992. Moscow: Synovya I. Docheri.

Alber, Jens. 1989. "Modernization, Cleavage Structures, and the Rise of Green Parties and Lists in Europe. In New Politics in Western Europe: The Rise and Success of Green Parties and Alternative Lists. ed. Ferdinand Muller-Rommel. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Alexander, Herbert E., ed. 1989a. Comparative Political Finance in the 1980s. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Alexander, Herbert E. 1989b. "Money and Politics: Rethinking a Conceptual Framework." In Comparative Political Finance in the 1980s. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Almond, Gabriel, and G. Bingham Powell. 1966. Comparative Politics: A Developmental Approach. Boston: Little, Brown.

Anderson, Lee. 1968. "Organizational Theory and the Study of State and Local Parties." In Approaches to the Study of Party Organization, ed. William J. Crotty. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Armingeon, Klaus. 1982. "Determining the Level of Wages: The Role of Parties and Trade Unions." In The Impact of Parties: Politics and Policies in Democratic Capitalist States, ed. Francis G. Castles. London: Sage Publications.

Arnhem, J. Corina van, and Geurt J. Schotsman. 1982. In The Impact of Parties: Politics and Policies In Democratic Capitalist States, ed. Francis G. Castles. London: Sage Publications.

Barghoorn, Frederick C. 1956. "The USSR: Monolithic Controls at Home and Abroad." In Modern Political Parties: Approaches to Comparative Politics, ed. Sigmund Neumann Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Baron, David P. 1991. "A Spatial Bargaining Theory of Government Formation in Parliamentary Systems." American Political Science Review 85:137-164.

Bartolini, Stefano. 1993. "The Membership of Mass Parties: The Social Democratic Experience, 1989-1978." In Western European Party Systems, ed. Hans Daalder and Peter Mair. London: Sage Publications.

Bartolini, Stefano, and Peter Mair. 1990. Identity Competition, and Electoral Availability: The Stabilisation of European Electorates 1885-1985. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Belloni, Frank P. and Dennis C. Beller. 1979. Faction Politics: Political Parties and Factionalism in Comparative Perspective. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC Clio Press.

Blais, André. 1991. "The Debate over Electoral Systems." International Political Science Review 12: 239-260.

Bowler, Shaun. 1990. "Voter Perceptions and Party Strategies: An Empirical Approach." Comparative Politics 23:61-83.

Brady, David W., and Charles S. Bullock, III. 1985. "Party and Factions Within Legislatures." In Handbook of Legislative Research, ed. Gerhard Lowenberg, Samuel C. Patterson, and Malcolm E. Jewell. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Browne, Eric C., and John Dreijmanis, ed. 1982. Government Coalitions in Western Democracies. London: Longman.

Bryce, James. [1893] 1912. The American Commonwealth. Vol. I, II. New York: Macmillan.

Bruce, John M., Johan A. Clark, and John H. Kessel. 1991. "Advocacy Politics in Presidential Parties." American Political Science Review 85:1089-1105.

Budge, Ian, David Robertson, and Derek Hearl. 1987. Ideology, Strategy and Party Change: Spatial Analyses of Post-War Election Programmes in 19 Democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Budge, Ian, and Richard I. Hofferbert. 1990. "Mandates and Policy Outputs: U.S. Party Platforms and Federal Expenditures." American Political Science Review 84:111-131.

Budge, Ian, and Hans Keman. 1990. Parties and Democracy: Coalition Formation and Government Functioning in Twenty States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Political Science: The State of the Discipline II
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Table of Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Theory and Method 1
  • 1: Texts and Canons: The Status of the "Great Books" in Political Theory 3
  • Conclusion 21
  • Notes 22
  • Bibliography 23
  • 2: Political Theory in the 1980s: Perplexity Amidst Diversity 27
  • Notes 43
  • Bibliography 43
  • Additional Bibliography 46
  • 3: Feminist Challenges to Political Science 55
  • Notes 72
  • Bibliography 73
  • 4: Formal Rational Choice Theory: A Cumulative Science of Politics 77
  • Concluding Comments 97
  • Notes 98
  • Bibliography 101
  • 5: The Comparative Method 105
  • Conclusion 116
  • Notes 117
  • Bibliography 117
  • 6: The State of Quantitative Political Methodology 121
  • Conclusion 148
  • Notes 148
  • Bibliography 150
  • Political Processes and Individual Political Behavior 161
  • 7: Comparative Political Parties: Research and Theory 163
  • Conclusion 183
  • Notes 184
  • Bibliography 185
  • 8: The Not So Simple Act of Voting 193
  • Notes 213
  • Bibliography 214
  • 9: The New Look in Public Opinion Research 219
  • Notes 240
  • Bibliography 240
  • 10: Expanding Disciplinary Boundaries 247
  • Conclusion 269
  • Notes 271
  • Bibliography 271
  • 11: Citizens, Contexts, and Politics 281
  • Conclusion: Putting the Puzzle Back Together 299
  • Bibliography 300
  • 12: Political Communication 305
  • Conclusions 323
  • Bibliography 324
  • Political Institutions of the State 333
  • 13: Legislatures: Individual Purpose and Institutional Performance 335
  • Conclusions: Behavior, Institutions, and Theory 354
  • Notes 357
  • Bibliography 357
  • 14: Public Law and Judicial Politics 365
  • 15: Political Executives and Their Officials 383
  • Conclusion 402
  • Bibliography 403
  • 16: Public Administration: The State of the Field 407
  • Notes 423
  • Bibliography 424
  • Nations and Their Relationships 429
  • 17: Comparative Politics 431
  • Conclusion 443
  • Notes 444
  • Bibliography 446
  • 18: Global Political Economy 451
  • Conclusion 474
  • Notes 476
  • Bibliography 477
  • Conclusions 483
  • Conclusions 503
  • Notes 504
  • Bibliography 505
  • Appendix 511
  • Contributors 513
  • Index of Cited Authors 517
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