Fourth, this chapter has tried to disentangle two dimensions of the perennial institutionalization issue in the study of political executives. It has identified two, rather than one, gearbox problems. The first of these concerns the political executives who make up an administration or government and their relations with the standing bureaucracy. We found abundant evidence that the institutionalization of the latter works a diminished effect as chief executives and their colleagues heighten efforts to reassert political control. Yet, the tug of war between an administration/government and the bureaucracy forms simply one part of the policy competence equation. Institutionalization inevitably rears its ugly head. And, in the case of the second gearbox problem, it involves the increased complexity, unwieldiness, and even willfulness of the cadre of presidents' and prime ministers' men and women who make up an administration or government. Nobody -- least of all presidents or prime ministers -- can assume that just because two or more gather in a chief executive's name that they actually will work in harmony.
Finally, this chapter attempted to demonstrate the continued utility of examining presidents' and prime ministers' personalities as critical factors contributing to their management style and performance. The case presented here places a strong emphasis on the special salience of the issue to presidential systems -- owing, of course, to their monocratic nature. However, personality has worked distinctive effects in parliamentary systems. This assessment readily admits that inclusion of personality in analyses presents difficult problems of operationalization. However, we can lull ourselves into some seriously error-prone analyses if we rule out personality as a factor altogether or construe it as an optional add-on.
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