improvement: Kenneth Bickers, Martha Derthick, James Fesler, Ada Finifter, George Frederickson, Alice Honeywell, Patricia Ingraham, Charles O. Jones, Anne Khademian, Laurence Lynn, Rob Meyer, H. Brinton Milward, Laurence J. O'Toole, Paul Quirk, Andrew Reschovsky, Francis Rourke, Karl Scholz, Michael Wiseman, and two anonymous reviewers. They asked far better questions than I had the wit or space to answer. I will attempt to explore some of these issues more fully in a forthcoming book, to be published by the Johns Hopkins University Press.
The differences between Hamilton and Madison's approaches are reflected in basic tensions between Hamiltonian and Jeffersonian administrative theories. For a fascinating look at this question, see Caldwell ( 1988).
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