Political Science: The State of the Discipline II

By Ada W. Finifter | Go to book overview
finding that preponderance and not necessarily hegemony is associated with the absence of major war ( Gilpin 1981; Russett 1985; Kugler and Organski 1989; Nye 1990).
Modelski and Morgan ( 1985) argue along similar lines, but center their criticism of the stability of deterrence on the global cycle (for details, see pp. 49-50).
John Mueller ( 1989) brings vividly to attention an oversight present in most war theories: the conditions for war are effectively and fully elaborated but those for peace are simply noted. Organski and Kugler ( 1980), for example, carefully define conditions for war under parity and transition, but fail to elaborate with equal precision the reasons for peace under preponderance. The reverse tendency, however, is present in the treatment of nuclear deterrence. Intriligator and Brito ( 1989) elaborate extensively the conditions for peace under deterrence, but fail to label the conditions their model suggests will lead to nuclear war. Indeed, their model suggests that since 1945, during transitions from the cone of war to compellence or from compellence to mutual deterrence, a nuclear war would be waged. The lack of a nuclear war under such conditions is -- after the fact -- dismissed or attributed to luck. This emphasis on the partial outcome one wishes to explore is prevalent.
Other reasons for nations to oppose nuclear proliferation might exist. Bueno de Mesquita and Riker ( 1982) and Wu ( 1990) point out that proliferation would reduce the bargaining power of a nation possessing nuclear weapons versus a prospective nuclear power.
For an alternate view of deterrence not based on power distributions, see John Mueller ( 1989).
This argument is used by Intriligator and Brito ( 1987) to oppose the development of defensive missile systems that could force nuclear nations out of stable Mutual Assured Destruction and into regions of uncertain deterrence (Figure 1).
Decision-making approaches would account for such phenomena if it can be proven that dramatically different preferences are held by authoritarian, totalitarian, and democratic populations and elites.
For specific information, consult Claudio Cioffi- Revilla ',s Long Range Analysis of War (LORANOW) Project, University of Colorado at Boulder.
Paul Diehl ( 1991) bibliographic review of the COW project provides an excellent overview of data expansions.
Recently, many of these data collections have been extended under the auspices of the Merriam Laboratory for Analytical Political Research as part of the Data Development for International Relations project. Important extensions include Ted Robert Gurr, National Capabilities; Jack Levy, Great Power Wars; Manus Midlarsky , Major-Minor Powers Wars; John Wilkenfeld, International Crisis Behavior; Frederick Parson, Interventions; Philip Schaefer, Gary Goertz , and Paul Diehl, Territorial Change Coding Manual; and Randolph Siverson with Harvey Starr, Data on International Borders, 1816-1965. The quantitative analysis of international events now offers a number of perspectives: Rudolph Rummel Dimensionality of Nations (DON); Charles McClelland World Events Interaction Survey (WEIS), Edward Azar Conflict and Peace Databank (COPDAT), Charles Herman's Comparative Research on the Events of Nations (CREON), Charles Taylor and David Jodice World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators, and Ernst Haas, Joseph Nye, and Robert Butterworth's SHERFACTS on conflict management. These now provide a very extensive cross-temporal and cross-national basis for empirical research. The data sets are available to the community through the ICPSR at the University of Michigan. In addition, interested readers can obtain current issues of the DDIR-Update that reports on data developments for international relations.
Perhaps Kautilya, who wrote his classic Arthasastra sometime between 321-296 B.C., deserves equal credit with Thucydides. This work parallels in many respects the critical elements of Thucydides' postulates on war. However, I know of no evidence that the Western thinkers who laid the foundations of contemporary war theory, such as Machiavelli, Hobbes, or Morgenthau, discovered the writings of Kautilya.
The development of physics is outlined in a clear and brilliant manner by Hawking ( 1988).
The American Political Science Review, World Politics, Foreign Affairs, and more recently The Journal of Conflict Resolution.
This change coincides with the appearance of The Journal of Conflict Resolution.


Achen, Christopher, and Duncan Snidal. 1989. "Rational Deterrence Theory and Comparative Case Studies." World Politics 41:143-169.

Allison, Graham. 1969. "Conceptual Models of the Cuban Missile Crisis." American Political Science Review 63:689-718.

Axelrod, Robert. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.

Bendor, Jonathan, and Thomas H. Hammond. 1992. "Rethinking Allison's Models." American Political Science Review 86:301-322.

Blainey, Geoffrey. 1973. The Causes of War. New York: The Free Press.

Bottome, Edgar M. 1971. The Balance of Terror. A Guide to the Arms Race. Boston: Beacon Press.

Boulding, Kenneth. 1962. Conflict and Defense. New York: Harper.

Brams, Steven. 1985. Superpower Games. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Brams, Steven, and Donald Wittman. 1981. "Nonmyopic Equilibria in 2×2 Games." Conflict Management and Peace Science 6:39- 62.

Brito, Dagobert, and Michael Intriligator. 1982. "Arms Races: Behavioral and Economic Dimensions." In Missing Elements in Political Inquiry, ed. John Gillespie and Dina Zinnes. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Brodie, Bernard. 1946. The Absolute Weapon. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Brodie, Bernard. 1959. Strategy in the Missile Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Bueno de Bruce Mesquita. 1980. "Theories of International Conflict." In Handbook of Political Conflict, ed. Ted Gurr. New York: The Free Press.

Bueno de Bruce Mesquita. 1981a. The War Trap. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bueno de Bruce Mesquita. 1981b. "Risk, Power, and the Likelihood of War." International Studies Quarterly 25:541-568.

Bueno de Bruce Mesquita. 1985a. "The War Trap Revisited." American Political Science Review 79:156-177.

Bueno de Bruce Mesquita. 1985b. "Toward a Scientific Understanding of International Conflict: A Personal View." International Studies Quarterly 29:121-136.

Bueno de Bruce Mesquita. 1988. "The Contribution of Expected Utility to the Study of International Conflict." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18:629-652.

Bueno de Bruce Mesquita. 1990. "Pride of Place: The Origins of German Hegemony." World Politics 43:28-52.

Bueno de Bruce Mesquita, and David Lalman. 1986. "Reason and War." American Political Science Review 80:1113-1131.

Bueno de Bruce Mesquita, and David Lalman. 1988. "Empirical Support for Systemic and Dyadic Explanations of International Conflict." World Politics 41:1-20.

Bueno de Bruce Mesquita, and David Lalman. 1992. War and Reason. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.


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Political Science: The State of the Discipline II
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Table of Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Theory and Method 1
  • 1: Texts and Canons: The Status of the "Great Books" in Political Theory 3
  • Conclusion 21
  • Notes 22
  • Bibliography 23
  • 2: Political Theory in the 1980s: Perplexity Amidst Diversity 27
  • Notes 43
  • Bibliography 43
  • Additional Bibliography 46
  • 3: Feminist Challenges to Political Science 55
  • Notes 72
  • Bibliography 73
  • 4: Formal Rational Choice Theory: A Cumulative Science of Politics 77
  • Concluding Comments 97
  • Notes 98
  • Bibliography 101
  • 5: The Comparative Method 105
  • Conclusion 116
  • Notes 117
  • Bibliography 117
  • 6: The State of Quantitative Political Methodology 121
  • Conclusion 148
  • Notes 148
  • Bibliography 150
  • Political Processes and Individual Political Behavior 161
  • 7: Comparative Political Parties: Research and Theory 163
  • Conclusion 183
  • Notes 184
  • Bibliography 185
  • 8: The Not So Simple Act of Voting 193
  • Notes 213
  • Bibliography 214
  • 9: The New Look in Public Opinion Research 219
  • Notes 240
  • Bibliography 240
  • 10: Expanding Disciplinary Boundaries 247
  • Conclusion 269
  • Notes 271
  • Bibliography 271
  • 11: Citizens, Contexts, and Politics 281
  • Conclusion: Putting the Puzzle Back Together 299
  • Bibliography 300
  • 12: Political Communication 305
  • Conclusions 323
  • Bibliography 324
  • Political Institutions of the State 333
  • 13: Legislatures: Individual Purpose and Institutional Performance 335
  • Conclusions: Behavior, Institutions, and Theory 354
  • Notes 357
  • Bibliography 357
  • 14: Public Law and Judicial Politics 365
  • 15: Political Executives and Their Officials 383
  • Conclusion 402
  • Bibliography 403
  • 16: Public Administration: The State of the Field 407
  • Notes 423
  • Bibliography 424
  • Nations and Their Relationships 429
  • 17: Comparative Politics 431
  • Conclusion 443
  • Notes 444
  • Bibliography 446
  • 18: Global Political Economy 451
  • Conclusion 474
  • Notes 476
  • Bibliography 477
  • Conclusions 483
  • Conclusions 503
  • Notes 504
  • Bibliography 505
  • Appendix 511
  • Contributors 513
  • Index of Cited Authors 517


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