The Concordat of 1801: A Study of the Problem of Nationalism in the Relations of Church and State

By Henry H. Walsh | Go to book overview

INTRODUCTION

(1)

THE problem of Church and state as it unfolded itself during the negotiations for the Concordat of 1801 between the Pope and the French state was surprisingly novel to European diplomacy. It revealed a cleavage of opinion practically unknown in former attempts to reconcile things temporal and spiritual. Although there was much talk among the associates of the First Consul about the dangerous Canossa precedent,1 the circumstances in 1801 were very different from those which gave rise to the Hildebrandine controversy. A new element had been intruded into this latest attempt to bring Church and state into harmonious relationship, making former endeavors to divide the fields of sovereignty seem almost simplicity itself.

This new phenomenon was nationalism, a revolutionary force, impatient of all traditional and venerable ideas of the essential unity of European thought and culture. It gloried in variety and assailed with unusual harshness the Catholic and imperial traditions of the Church of Rome.


(2)

An exhaustive definition of nationalism is hardly called for here. Enough research has been done, the results of which are pretty generally known, to enable us to use the term without too much ambiguity. Unfortunately for our purposes,

____________________
1
Boulay de la Meurthe, Histoire de la Négociation du Concordat de 1801 ( Tours, 1920), ch. i; a good account of prejudices adverse to the Concordat.

-11-

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The Concordat of 1801: A Study of the Problem of Nationalism in the Relations of Church and State
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 1
  • Preface 5
  • Contents 7
  • Introduction 11
  • Chapter I - On the Eve of the Concordat 23
  • Chapter II - The Negotiations for the Concordat 39
  • Chapter III - Chateaubriand 62
  • Chapter IV - Jean-Etienne Portalis 76
  • Chapter V - Jean Siffrein Maury 100
  • Chapter VI - Henri Grégoire 123
  • Chapter VII - Jacques-André Emery 146
  • Chapter VIII - Paul-Thérèse-David D'Astros 178
  • Chapter IX - Joseph De Maistre 199
  • Chapter X - Conclusion 233
  • Bibliography 247
  • Index 251
  • Vita 260
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