Learning to Lie:
Lying has its normative functions as well as its pathology and so does telling the truth.--Arnold Goldberg
Most people are not, despite the common phrase, "born liars"; rather, there is a developmental process by which an individual learns how to lie. The concepts of truth-telling and of lying are inexorably intertwined; each requires the other because one cannot lie without knowledge of the truth. Furthermore, a child can neither lie nor tell the truth without having reached a certain level of maturity in terms of cognitive processes. Some degree of reality testing must be present, and secondary thought processes must be sufficiently developed in order to distinguish between the inner world and the outer world ( A. Freud 1965). Lying also requires an awareness of the concept of deception. How does one get another person to believe something different from the "truth"?