The Psychology of Expertise: Cognitive Research and Empirical AI

By Robert R. Hoffman | Go to book overview

7
Knowledge Acquisition and Constructivist Epistemology
Kenneth M. Ford and Jack R. Adams-Webber
Introduction
The most fundamental step in the knowledge acquisition phase of the development of an expert system is the elicitation of knowledge from a skilled individual. The knowledge acquisition phase has typically involved the knowledge engineer's working closely with a specialist to elicit relevant knowledge from the latter's domain. This is typically a tedious and ad hoc cycle that consists of extensive verbal interviews followed by the construction of prototypes, testing, and more interviews. This approach has two significant drawbacks -- it has been extremely laborious, and domain experts often have difficulty articulating their knowledge in forms useful to the knowledge engineer. Indeed, it has been suggested ( Feigenbaum & McCorduck, 1983) that "the problem of knowledge acquisition is the critical bottleneck in artificial intelligence" (p. 80).A commonly proposed partial solution to the knowledge acquisition bottleneck is the design and implementation of automated tools for the purposes of interacting with domain experts, acquiring and organizing knowledge, and automatically generating a prototype expert system. Among the expected benefits of automating at least a portion of the knowledge acquisition process are the following:
1. An automated approach may be moreefficient than manual interviewing methods, thereby reducing the great expense presently incurred in the knowledge acquisition phase.
2. Automated approaches may prove able to elicit expertise not easily obtained by manual interviewing methods, thus producing systems with greater expertise.

To provide these desired benefits, automated approaches to knowledge acquisition must assist the knowledge engineer in avoiding the domain experts' cognitive defenses and reduce the representation mismatch -- the difference between the manner in which the domain expert normally states knowledge and the way it is represented in the expert system knowledge base. The design and construction of knowledge acquisition tools have recently become areas of intense research and development.

As noted by Bradshaw and Boose ( 1990), a major difficulty has been that much of the aforementioned work lacks a plausible theoretical foundation:

As a consequence of incomplete theory and a limited repertoire of practical approaches to the dynamics of the modeling process, knowledge engineers have had to rely on intuition and experience as the primary means of developing and testing effective procedures. (p. 129)

Many of those engaged in knowledge acquisition (as researcher or practitioner) may be classified as toolmakers and/or tool users. Toolmakers should exploit theory as a means of building their tools on a sound footing and as a framework in which to make explicit their epistemological assumptions. Furthermore, theory may offer toolmakers a useful infra-

-121-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Psychology of Expertise: Cognitive Research and Empirical AI
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 395

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.